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Rock and Roll
Instrumentation includes ­ male vocals, backing vocals, electric guitars, double bass, drums, piano, harmonica,
saxophone and other brass
Small ensembles, typically one or two guitars, vocals, bass and drums.
Fast Tempo ­ 140bpm or faster
Energetic delivery of vocals (screaming and shouting)
Often based on 12-bar chord…

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Gene Vincent: `Be-Bop-a lula ­ 1956'
Jerry Lee Lewis: `Whole lotta shakin going on ­ 1957' `Great balls of fire ­ 1957'
Little Richard: `Tutti Frutti - 1957' `Lucille - 1958'
Bo Diddley: `Bo Diddley ­ 1956' `I'm a man ­ 1956' `Diddy wah Diddy ­ 1957'
Cliff Richard: `Move…

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persona, and music inspired generations of performers in various genres. Elton John took elements of his flamboyant
appearance and piano playing to his own shows, as did Freddie Mercury

Gene Vincent
A pioneer of rockabilly who was covered by mnay bands such as queen and John Lennon. He influenced Elvis…

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Sam Phillips is particularly associated with the use of slap-back tape echo as part of the rock and roll sounds, this
technique, along with the choice of placing vocals lower in the mix distinguished Sun's sound. A unique sound was
important to him so he encourages singers and musicians to…

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Technology and Production:
Later styles also use samplers to create loops
DJ scratching creates unique sounds including reversing, pitch-shifting and filtering
Special effects from synthesizers / non-pitched sound effects
Drum machines used instead of or alongside loops
Original hip-hop artists used two or more record decks to play instrumental grooves…

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Ice T
50 Cent
Tupac Shakur
Wu-tang Clan
Jay-Z
Nas
Lil wayne
The Black Eyed Peas
Kanye West
Nelly

Public Enemy
Public Enemy introduced a hard hip-hop sound that changed the rules of hip-hop. PE's production team, the Bomb
Squad, created a unique, noisy, layered avant-garde-inspired sound that incorporated sirens,…

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MC Hammer
Widely considered the first "mainstream" rapper. Hammer's clothing-lines, one later called J Slick, and flashy
wardrobes also led to other performers being more conscientious about video outfits, "shiny suits" and baggie
pants. Prior to Hammer, it was virtually unheard of for a hip-hop artist to be seen in…

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Modulation Effects
Auto-tune
Rap generally refers to the music whereas hip hop refers to the culture around the music
Started in the mid 1970s, New York block parties part of the culture of young black people in areas like the Bronx
with big speaker stacks and amps to play loud…

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