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Special focus: Hip Hop

Instrumentation
Vocals, rapping, drum machine, turntable, samplers, synths, sometimes lives
instruments such as guitars, keys, drums, percussion, bass, sax and other horns

Performance and arrangement
Based on repeating rhythmic patterns-loops
Melodic elements are usually short motifs
Use of riffs, often repetitive
Sometimes no bass line
Unusual…

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Public Enemy
Public Enemy introduced a hard hip-hop sound that changed the rules of hip-hop.
PE's production team, the Bomb Squad, created a unique, noisy, layered
avant-garde-inspired sound that incorporated sirens, skittering turntable
scratches, and cleverly opposing musical and spoken samples The production team
used cut and paste techniques to…

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MC Hammer
Widely considered the first "mainstream" rapper. Hammer's clothing-lines, one
later called J Slick, and flashy wardrobes also led to other performers being more
conscientious about video outfits, "shiny suits" and baggie pants. Prior to Hammer,
it was virtually unheard of for a hip-hop artist to be seen in…

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Snoop's debut album Doggystyle, was released in 1993 under Death Row Records,
debuting at No.1 on both the Billboard 200 and R&B charts.

Influences
Funk
Soul
Disco
R&B
Reggae
Scat singing

Key facts and terminology
Rap generally refers to the music and `hip hop' to the complete culture
around the…

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