Popular Music

  • Created by: hlouiset
  • Created on: 29-02-16 11:08
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  • New Orleans Jazz
    • Instrumentation
      • Trumpet
      • Trombone
      • Clarinet
      • Double Bass
      • Drums
      • Guitar
      • Banjo
      • Piano
      • Vocals (occas.)
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Lively and fast
      • Strong rhythmic emphasis on beats 2 and 4
      • Guitar banjo or piano play chords
      • Harmonies less complex than later jazz
      • Bass plays two beats to the bar
      • Not much syncopation
      • Main Melody - Improv
      • Improv often has two or more instruments soloing together
      • Some use of blue notes and chromatic movement
    • Technology and Production
      • Victor Recording Company (1917)
        • Earliest recordings
        • Original Dixieland Jass Band
          • Livery Stable Blues
          • Dixie Jass Band One Step
      • Mechanical recording process (Acoustic recording)
      • Poor reproduction of frequency range and dynamics
    • Influences
      • Work Songs
      • Marching Bands/ Brass Bands
      • Ragtime
      • Blues
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular from early 1900s-1920s
        • Revival in 1950s and remains popular
      • Played in bars and clubs (New Orleans)
      • Popularised by sheet music and recording sales
      • Played by white and black musicians instead of just black
    • Main Artists
      • Buddy Bolden
      • Joe 'King' Oliver
      • Jelly Roll Morton
      • Kid Ory
      • Original Dixieland Jass Band
  • Big Band and Swing
    • Instrumanetation
      • Drums
      • Upright Bass
      • Piano
      • Guitar
      • Trumpets
      • Trombone
      • Cornets
      • Saxophone
      • Clarinet
      • Vocals (occas.)
    • Main Artists
      • Duke Ellington
      • Count Basie
      • Louis Armstrong
      • Cab Calloway
      • Benny Goodman
      • Glen Miller
      • Coleman Hawkins
    • Influences
      • Ragtime
      • New Orleans Jazz
      • Blues
      • Brass Band
      • Popular Song/Tin Pan Alley
      • Vaudeville
    • Technology and Production
      • Carbon microphones
        • Better frequency and dynamic response
      • Gramophone & 78rpm records
      • Development of radio
      • Limited quality
      • Spot mic-ing
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Main melody played by whole ensemble
      • Improvised solos
      • AABA structure (32-bar structure)
      • Brass - Supporting roles
        • Rhythmic, syncopated stabs
      • Piano and guitar - syncopated chordal patterns
      • Extended chords used
      • Swing rhythm
      • Walking bass
      • Jazz standards
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular 1920s-1940s
      • Speakeasies - Illegal drinking clubs
      • Victor Recording Company
      • Columbia Recording Company
  • Stride Piano
    • Main Artists
      • James Price Johnson
      • Thomas 'Fats' Waler
      • Willie 'The Lion' Smith
    • Influences
      • Ragtime
      • Blues
    • Performance and Arrrangement
      • Alternating bass notes and chords in the left hand
      • Melodic and improv roles in the right hand
      • Blues scale
      • Often solo performance
  • Boogie Woogie
    • Main Artists
      • Meade 'Lux' Lewis
      • Pinetop Perkins
    • Influence
      • Ragtime
      • Blues
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Heavily swung quaver patterns in the left hand
      • Melodies and improv in the right hand
      • Singers and other instruments are more common
      • Fast tempo
      • 12-bars blues
  • Gypsy Jazz
    • Main Artists
      • Django Reinhardt and his Quintette du Hot Club de France
      • Stephane Grappelli
    • Influences
      • Swing
      • Music Hall
      • Gypsy and Eastern European Folk
    • Instrumentation
      • Acoustic Steel Strung Guitar
      • Double Bass
      • Violin
      • Piano (occas.)
      • Vocals (occas.)
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Fast tempo
      • Fast soloing shared between instruments
      • Guitar plays four-to-the-bar chords
      • Walking bass or two-to-the-bar patterns
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Developed in the 1930s
      • Popular 1930s-1950s
      • Jazz standards as well as own compositions
  • Bebop
    • Instrumentation
      • Saxophone
      • Trumpet
      • Trombone
      • Clarinet
      • Drums
      • Double Bass
      • Piano
      • Guitar
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Fast tempo
      • Rhythm section uses syncopation
      • Swing pattern on ride cymbal
      • Walking bass often diverts to more rhythmically complex patterns
      • Complex harmony and inprovisation
      • Unusual phrasing
      • Virtuoso performances
      • Common jazz chords extended
      • Use of dissonance
    • Technology and Production
      • Early recordings similar to jazz recordings in the 1940s
      • Use of tape recorders, improved mics, amps and mixing desks in 1950s
      • Introduction of vinyl records in 1950s
    • Main Artists
      • Coleman Hawkins
      • Charlie Parker
      • Dizzy Gilliepie
      • Thelonious Monk
    • Influences
      • Swing
      • Big Band
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Developed in the 1940s
      • Popular 1940s-1960s
      • 'Hard Bop' developed with R&B influences
      • Jazz standards with re-worked harmonies and
  • Cool Jazz
    • Instrumentation
      • Saxophone
      • Trumpet
      • Drums
      • Double Bass
      • Piano
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Slower tempo than bebop
      • More spacious arrangement
      • Complex harmonies
      • Rhythmically complex drum part
      • Improvisation used
    • Technology and Production
      • Improved microphones and recording technology
      • Spot mic-ing
    • Main Artists
      • Miles Davis
      • Gerry Mulligan
      • Dave Brubeck
      • Bill Evans
    • Influences
      • Blues
      • Bebop
      • Swing
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular late1940s-1960s
      • Also known as West Coast Jazz due to the heavy presence around LA
  • Avant-Garde and Free Jazz
    • Instrumentation
      • Typical jazz combo
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Improvisation without many constraints
      • Loosely arranged chord structures, form, tempo, time sig. and rhythm
    • Influences
      • Bebop
      • Cool
      • Swing
    • Main Artists
      • Ornette Coleman
      • John Coltrane
      • Charles Mingus
      • Archie Shepp
      • Sun Ra
  • Latin Jazz
    • Instrumentation
      • Horn Section
      • Latin Percussion Ensemble
      • Drums (occas.)
      • Bass
      • Piano
      • Guitar
      • Vocals
    • Performace and Arrangement
      • Similar to swing and big band
      • Heavy featured percussion wit Latin rhythms
    • Main Artists
      • Joao and Astrud Gillberto
      • Tito Puente
      • Buena Vista Social Club
    • Influences
      • Latin American Folk and Dance Music
      • Swing
      • Big Band
      • Cool
      • Bebop
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Many American jazz musicians collaborated with Brazilian, Cuban and other Latin American musicians
      • Still popular in Latin America
  • Jazz Fusion
    • Late 1960s & early 1970s
    • Jazz began to fuse with pop
  • Blues
    • Acoustic Blues
      • Main Artists
        • Robert Johnson
        • John Lee ******
        • Lead Belly
        • Tampa Red
        • Big Joe Williams
        • Bessie Smith
      • Instrumentation
        • Vocals
        • Acoustic Guitar
        • Piano
        • Harmonica
        • Backing Vocals (occas.)
    • Electric Blues
      • Main Artists
        • Muddy Waters
        • Buddy Guy
        • T-Bone Walker
        • Howlin' Wolf
        • Elmore James
        • B.B. King
      • Instrumentation
        • Vocals
        • Electric Guitar
        • Electric/ Acoustic Bass
        • Drums
        • Piano
        • Hamonica
        • Backing Vocals
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • 12-bar structure
      • Vocals are passionate, loud and expressive
      • Elaboration on simple melodies with slides, ornamentation etc.
      • Call and resonse
      • Use of stops
      • Blues scale/ blues notes
      • Shuffle rhythm
      • Extended chords in melody
    • Technology and Production
      • Early recordings on cylinders
      • Later recordings on metal discs
      • Overdriven guitar developed with electric guitars
      • Electric guitar and better amplification developed
    • Influences
      • African-American Work Songs
      • Ragtime
      • Spirituals
      • European and African Folk Music
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Origin late 1800s in rural states of the US
      • Also known as Delta Blues, Jug Bands Country Blues
      • Mgratin to cities lead to electric blues in the 1940s
      • Mostly performed in bars and clubs
      • Sun Records and Chess were recording companies used for blues
  • Rhythm and Blues
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • Drums
      • Bass
      • Guitar
      • Piano
      • Horn Section
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Similar to blues
      • Faster than blues
      • Larger ensembles and more dance oriented than blues
    • Main Artists
      • Ray Charles
      • Ruth Brown
      • The Drifters
      • Ben E King
      • Sam Cooke
    • Influences
      • Blues
      • Boogie Woogie
      • Doo ***
      • Gospel
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • The R&B charts were separate from the mainstream charts
      • Rhythm and blues was the term used to replace the term race music
  • Jump Blues
    • Instrumentation
      • Horn Secton
      • Vocals
      • Drums
      • Bass
      • Piano
      • Electric Guitar
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular in New York and on the West Coast in California
    • Influences
      • New Orleans Jazz
      • Swing
      • Big Band
      • Blues
      • Gospel
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Faster and livelier than blues
      • Jazz influences more prominent
      • Horns are solo instruments
    • Main Artists
      • Big Joe Turner
      • Louis Jordan
      • Jimmy Witherspoon
  • Rock and Roll
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • Electric Guitar
      • Double Bass or Electric Bass
      • Drums
      • Piano
      • Acoustic Guitar (occas.)
      • Harmonica
      • Saxophone
      • Brass
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Fast tempo
      • Energetic delivery
      • 12 bar chord pattern
      • Use of major keys but with blues scale in vocals and lead
      • Strong  backbeat on beats 2 and 4
      • Shuffle rhythm
      • Walking bass based on ascending and descending pattern of root-3rd-5th-6th-flat 7th-6th-5th-3rd
      • Bass lin often doubled by electric guitar
      • Rhythm guitar uses 6th and 7th extensions of chords
      • Use of stops
      • Use of guitar solos
      • Call and response
      • Backing vocals are simple
    • Technology and Production
      • Slap back delay developed
      • Music released on vinyl
        • Better quality, wider frequency reproduction and better dynamic range
      • Early three track recorders used in the 1950s
      • Poor frequency reproduction due to mic positions and spill
      • Live recordings direct to tape
      • Use of echo chambers
      • Use of overdriven valve amplifiers used
    • Main Artists
      • Bill Haley and his Comets
      • Little Richard
      • Chuck Berry
      • Elvis Presley
      • Jerry Lee Lewis
      • Bo Diddley
      • Cliff Richard
    • Influences
      • Country
      • Blues
      • R&B
      • Gospel
    • Key Fact and Terminology
      • Mainly produced in the 1950s
      • Developed in the urban areas of the southern states of the US
      • Electric guitar became central to the music
      • Controuversaial performers gave the music a rebel image
      • Important record labels include Chess Records and Sun Studios
      • Rockabilly is rock and roll with more of a country influence
  • Technology and Production
    • Slap back delay developed
    • Music released on vinyl
      • Better quality, wider frequency reproduction and better dynamic range
    • Early three track recorders used in the 1950s
    • Poor frequency reproduction due to mic positions and spill
    • Live recordings direct to tape
    • Use of echo chambers
    • Use of overdriven valve amplifiers used
  • Soul
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • Drums/ Percussion
      • Bass
      • Electric Guitar
      • Piano
      • Electric Piano
      • Electric Organ
      • Hon Section
      • String Section
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Emotional vocal delivery
      • Shared lead vocals between singers (occas.)
      • Driving rhythm
      • Drums give steadyback beat on beats 2 and 4
      • Rhythmic riff based bass line
      • Rhythmic chordal  pattern on piano and guitar
      • Brisk tempo (120bpm or more)
      • Strong use of hooks
      • Call and response
      • Simple structure
      • Use of pentatonic scales with additional blues notes
    • Technology and Production
      • Early adaption of multi-track tape machines
      • DI guitars and bass
      • Acoustic screens used for separation
      • Close mic drum recording
      • Vocals overdubed
      • High quality mics
      • Use of echo chamers
      • Plate reverb
      • Classic compressors usd on tracking and mix
      • High quality recordings with full-range frequency reproduction
      • Stereo mixes with extreme panning
    • Main Artists
      • Sam Cooke
      • Wilson Pickett
      • Otis Redding
      • Stevie Wonder
      • The Jackson 5
      • James Brown
    • Influnces
      • R&B
      • Gospel
      • Jazz singers
      • Psychedelic Rock
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular from late 1950s-mid 1970s
      • Origined in large cities in southern states of the US
      • Important record labls include Stax, Atlantic and Motown
  • Country Music
    • Instrumentation
      • Acoustic Guitar
      • Electric Guitar
      • Bass
      • Drums/ Percussion
      • Violin
      • Banjo
      • Pedal Steel Guitar
      • Harmonica
      • Keyboards
      • String Section (occas.)
      • Horn Section (occas.)
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Acoustic guitar uses rhythmic strumming, chops or picking
      • Finger-picking styles used on banjo and guitar
      • Simple rhythms
      • Strong backbeat emphasis from snare and guitar
      • Two-to-the-bar bass lines playing root 5th figures
      • 3/4 time signature
      • Close harmony backing vocals
      • Vocal techniques used  yodeling and falsetto
    • Technology and Production
      • Varies as production methods evolved through years
      • Important recording industry in Nashville
      • Electric guitar sound clean and 'twangy'
    • Main Artists
      • Jimmie Rodgers
      • Spade Cooley
      • Johnny Cash
      • Dolly Parton
      • The Charlie Daniels Band
      • Hank Williams
    • Influences
      • European Folk Music
      • Blues
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Started in early 20th century in southern states of the US
      • Associated with cowboys earlier on and truckers later
      • Still popular in present time
  • Psychedelic Rock
    • Instrumentation
      • Guitars
      • Drums
      • Bass
      • Keyboards
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • Sitar
      • Mandolin
      • Dulcimer
      • Mellotron Keyboard
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Unusual timbres and open spacey textures
      • Loose forms used for songs
      • Extended jamming and soloing over grooves and chord patterns
      • Vocals given a spacey quality
      • Tempo, key and time signature changes used
      • Songs could be long and complex
    • Technology and Production
      • Processing used on guitars (distortion, feedback, fuzz, phasing, delay)
      • Mellotrom smapler used for unusual timbres
      • Large amounts of reverb and delay
      • Phasers and flangers popular
      • Synthesisers used
      • Tape loops and ambient recordings used
    • Main Artists
      • Grateful Dead
      • The Doors
      • Frank Zappa
      • Hawkwind
    • Influences
      • UK Rock
      • Folk Rock
      • Experimental Music
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Late 1960s-early 1970s
      • Concept albums were popular
      • The use of mind altering drugs played a part in the way songs were put together and what they sounded like
      • Lyric themes often surreal
  • Progressive Rock
    • Instrumentation
      • Drums
      • Bass
      • Guitar
      • Keyboards
      • Synthesisers
      • Electric Organ
      • Electric Piano
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • String Section (occas.)
      • Horn Section (occas.)
      • World Instruments (occas.)
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Tempo and time signature changes
      • Musically complex and technically difficult to play
      • Long complex instrumental passgaes
      • Melody and harmony sometimes complicated and unusual
      • Structure can be complex
      • Changes in texture and dynamics common
      • Drum part rhythmically complex
    • Influences
      • UK Rock
      • Psychedelic Rock
      • Jazz
      • World Music
      • Classical
    • Main Artists
      • Pink Floyd
      • King Crimson
      • Yes
      • Genesis
      • Jethro Toll
    • Technology and Production
      • Use of lush reverbs, delay and 'expensive sounding' layered recordings
      • Guitar sounds vary from clean sound, effects (chorus etc.), flanger and phaser to distortion and fuzz
      • Moog and ARP fairly new instruments
      • Synthesisers important
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Started in the late 1960s
      • Also known as Prog Rock
      • Popular late 1960s-1970s
  • P
  • O
  • P
  • U
  • L
  • A
  • R
  • M
  • U
  • S
  • I
  • C
  • Heavy Rock
    • Instrumentation
      • Guitars
      • Drums
      • Bass
      • Vocals
      • Keyboards
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Vocals high-powered
      • Riff based guitar patterns
      • Use of power chords
      • Solos include fast, technically difficult work
      • Use of pentatonic scales and blues notes
      • Use of modal scales and chromaticism in riffs and lead lines
      • Driving rhythms from guitars, drums and bass
      • Drums use alot of cymbals and toms and can be very technical
    • Technology and Production
      • Use of distortionand valve amp sound on guitars
      • Effects such as fuzz, wah wah and phaser used
      • Fedback and finger tapping used
      • Drums and bass thick and heavy
      • Large, obvious reverb
    • Main Artists
      • Jimi Hendrix
      • Led Zeppelin
      • Deep Purple
      • Black Sabbath
      • Motorhead
      • Iron Maiden
      • Metallica
      • Bon Jovi
    • Influences
      • Blues
      • R&B
      • Prog Rock
      • British Blues
      • Psychedelic Rock
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Guitar is the centrepiece of the music
  • Glam Rock
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Backing Vocals
      • Guitar
      • Bass
      • Drums/ Percussion
      • Keyboards
      • Horns (ocass.)
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Melodic, hook-laden catchy songs
      • Simple song strucure
      • Distorted guitar playing riffs/ chordal patterns
      • Driving rock beats
      • 'Camp and glitzy' delivery
    • Influences
      • Rock and Roll
      • Heavy Rock
      • Psychedelic Rock
      • 1960s Pop
    • Technology and Production
      • Use of distortion, fuzz and powerful amplification on guitars
      • Multi-track recording
      • Use of synths and effects
      • Natural or plate reverb
      • Tape echo
    • Main Artists
      • Slade
      • David Bowie
      • Gary Glitter
      • The Sweet
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Popular 1970-1976
      • Lyrics tended to be light and avoided controversal themes
  • Disco
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Group Backing Vocals
      • Drums/ Percussion
      • Bass
      • Guitars
      • Keyboards
      • Horn Section
      • String Section (occas.)
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Strict tempo
      • Syncopation in percussion
      • Four-to-the-floor
      • Hi hat on off beat quavers
      • Snare based around beats 2 and 4
      • Bass line melodic and syncopated
      • Rhythmic, choppy harmony on guitar and keyboards
      • Chord pattern simple
    • Technology and Production
      • Large scale multi-track recording
      • Lots of reverb used on vocals and horns
      • Deep bass
      • Lots of high frequency content
      • Clean, thin guitar sound
      • Electric pianos used: Fender Rhodes, Wurlitzer
      • Hohner Clavinet
      • Synthesisers used
      • Use of wah wah and chorus on guitars and keyboards
      • Early use of sequencers and drum machines
      • Electric hand claps popular
      • Kick drum layered with low synth note
      • Songs released as 12" singles
      • Remixes started
      • DJs beat match and mix songs together
    • Influences
      • R&B
      • Gospel
      • Soul
      • Funk
      • Latin
    • Main Artists
      • Donna Summer
      • The Jackson 5
      • Chic
      • The Bee Gees
      • Village People
      • Earth, Wind & Fire
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Started in gay clubs in New York in the 1970s
      • Lyrics mainly love songs and party songs
  • Funk
    • Instrumentation
      • Similar to disco
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Exuberant and energetic
      • More variation and syncopation in drums
      • Intricate hi hat patterns
      • Heavy backbeat on beats 2 and 4
      • Bass lines syncopated and melodic
      • Slap bass technique used
      • Similar guitar and keyboard style to disco
      • Extended groove based sections
      • Improvisation and solos
      • Rebel, anti-establishment image
    • Technology and Production
      • Similar to disco
      • More focus on live recordings
      • Fewer production tricks
    • Main Artists
      • James Brown
      • Funkadelic
      • Stevie Wonder
      • Sly and the Family Stone
      • Issac Hayes
    • Influences
      • R&B
      • Soul
      • Jazz
      • Psychedelic Rock
      • Latin
    • Key Facts and Terminology
      • Developed at the end of the 1960s
  • Jazz-Funk and Funk-Rock
    • Developed in the 1970s
    • Herbie Hancock
    • Stanley Clarke
    • Bands like Jane's Addiction and Red Hot Chilli Peppers used funk influences in 80s and 90s rock
  • Ska, Reggae and Dub
    • Instrumentation
      • Vocals
      • Three or Four Part Backing Vocals
      • Drums/ Percussion
      • Bass
      • Electric Guitar
      • Piano
      • Organ
      • Synthesisers
      • Horn Section
    • Influences
      • Blues
      • R&B
      • Gospel
      • Soul
    • Main Artists
      • Bob Marley and the Wailers
      • The Skatalites
      • Alton Ellis
      • Damian Marley
      • Eek-a-Mouse
    • Performance and Arrangement
      • Drums emphasisew beat 3 (the drop)
      • Sanre ohit on beat 3 with syncopated beats
    • Technology and Production
    • Key Facts and Terminology

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