Education

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  • Education
    • Class Differences
      • External Factors
        • 1-Cultural Dep
          • Intellectual Dev- Douglas (1964)
            • +Bernstein (1975) -Too determinstic
          • Language- Bereiter & Engelman (1966)
            • +Bernstein (1975)
          • Attitudes & Values- Fernstein (1998)
        • 2- Material Dep
          • Housing
          • Poverty is linked to educational achievement- 2006 only 33% of children receiving free school meals gained 5 or more GCSEs at grade A*-C against 61% of pupils who dont - Nearly 90% of failing schools are located in deprived areas
          • Diet & Health- Howard (2001)
            • +Wilkinson (1996)
          • Financial support & costs of education
            • +Bull (1980) +Tanner et al (2003)
        • 3- Cultural capital
          • Bourdieu: Three types of caital- Cultural capital, educational & economic capital(1984)
            • +Leech & Compos (2003)
          • Gewirtz: marketisation & parental choice (1995)- Three main types of parents- Privileged-skilled choosers, Disconnected-local choosers & Semi-skilled choosers
            • -Categories- How do they fit every types of parent into 3 categories
      • Internal Factors
        • 1-Labelling
          • Labelling in secondary schools- Becker (1971)
            • +Labelling in primary schools- Rists (1970)
        • 2- The self-fulfilling prophecy
          • +Teacher expectations- Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968)
        • 3- Pupil subcultures- Lacey (1970)
          • Abolishing steaming- +Ball (1981)
            • + Ball shows how labelling/streaming has a negative effect on pupils achievement - Too deterministic-Marxists argue teachers labels stem from the fact teachers work in a system that reproduces class division & inequality
        • 4- Marketisation & selection policies- Gillborn & Youdell
          • +Bartelett (1993)
    • Ethic Differences
      • 1998 the percentage with 5 or more GCSE A*-C in year 11 shows Indian were the most achieving with 54% followed by White with 47%, Bangladeshi with 33%, Pakistani with 29% and Black with 29% achievement
      • External Factors
        • 1- Cultural Dep
          • Attitudes & Values
          • Family structure & parental support- Moynihan (1965)
            • + Murray (1984) -Keddie
        • 2- Material Dep & class- Flaherty (2004)
          • +Swann Report (1985)
        • 3- Racism in wider society- Mason (1995)
          • +Rex (1986) + Noon's study (1993)
      • Internal Factors
        • 1-Labelling & teacher racism- Gillborn (1990), Gillborn & Youdell (2000)
          • +Foster (1990)
        • 2- Pupil responses & subcultures
          • +Fuller (1984)
        • 3- The ethnocentric curriculum- Troyna & Williams (1986)
          • - It is not clear what impact the ethnocentric curriculum has
        • 4- Institutional racism- Troyna & Williams
          • +Hatcher (1996)
        • 5- Selection & segregation- Gillborn (1997)
          • +Moore & Davenport (1990)
    • Gender Differences
      • DfEs (2007) show the percentage of pupils that achieve 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE, in 1985 boys percentage was 26%, girls at 28% and by 2007 boys achieving percentage increased to 56% where girls had rose to 66%
      • External factors
        • 1-Impact of feminism
          • +McRobbie (1994)
        • 2- Changes in the family
        • 3- Changes in womens employment
          • +Equal Pay Act
        • 4- Girls changing ambitions- Sharpe (1994)
          • +Francis (2001)
      • Subject choice
        • 1-Early socialisation- Norman (1988)
          • +Intenral factor- Byrne- Supporting gender encouragment in schools
        • 2-Gendered carrer opportunities
      • Internal Factors
        • 1- Equal opportunities policies
          • +kelly (1987)
        • 2- GCSE & coursework- Gorard (2005)
          • +Mitos & Browne (1998)
        • 3- Teacher attention
          • +Francis (2001) - French (1993)
        • 4- Selection & league tables- jackson (1998)
        • Boys & achievement
          • 1-Globalisation & the decline of traditional men's jobs-
        • Subject choice
          • 1-Peer pressure
            • +Paetcher (1998)

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