Education - Which sociologist said what?

Role of Education - Marxism - Hidden curriculum - BOWLES AND GINTIS
Argue that the Correspondence Principle operates through the hidden curriculum - pupils accept hierarchy through the workings inside school.
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Role of Education - Marxism - The Myth of Meritocracy - BOWLES AND GINTIS
Say that the education system justifies poverty by what they call the 'poor are dumb' theory. Poor think they are in poverty because they didn't work hard enough.
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Role of Education - Marxism - criticisms of BOWLES AND GINTIS.
Many employees argue that schools are not providing the obedience work force required.
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Role of Education - Marxism - BOWLES AND GINTIS
See education as a process of indoctrination into the myth of meritocracy.
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Role of Education - Marxism - PAUL WILLIS
Study shows working class pupils can resist the attempts to indoctrinate them. Willis looked at 12 WC boys. Lads form a distinct counter culture opposed to schools meritocratic ideology. This sub-culture is similar to shop floor subculture.
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Role of Education - Marxism - LOUIS ALTHUSSER (1)
Says that education has two main functions. The first being that it reproduces class inequality by transmitting it from generation to generation by failing each. Teaches WC pupils to accept failure and inequality.
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Role of Education - Marxism - LOUIS ALTHUSSER (2)
The second being that it persuades workers to accept their subordinate position in society as fair. Less likely to challenge capitalism.
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Role of Education - Marxism - Correspondence Principle - BOWLES AND GINTIS
The way in which relationships within school mirror those in society.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - anti-school subculture - JACKSON
Girls may adopt anti-school subculture as they adopt anti-school subculture as they adopt 'ladette' behavior. (Possibly giving them status)
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - A-C economy - GILLBORN AND YOUDELL
Teachers stream children based on stereotypical notions of 'ability' so they are put into lower sets. Hence working class student are seen as less able. No attention was given to them because they were not on the borderline of the A-C.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - streaming - BECKER
Working class students are less likely to be in higher streams due to teacher labeling.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - streaming - DOUGLAS
Children placed in streams at age 8 have a lower IQ by 11
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Differential achievement - class -criticisms of cultural explanation of class differences - REAY
Involves a 'blame the victim' approach placing blame on homes due to a WC association to povery
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Differential achievement - class -criticisms of cultural explanation of class differences - DOUGLAS
Not visiting school was not due to a lack of parental interest but of time restraints from jobs.
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Differential achievement - class -criticisms of cultural explanation of class differences - CASSEN AND KINGDON
To schools working class children will not contribute to the league tables as so are labelled as born to fail. This leads to the self fulfilling prophecy.
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Differential achievement - class -criticisms of cultural explanation of class differences - KEDDIE
Schools are based on white middle class culture with disadvantages those from working class backgrounds. Due to the status of WC culture being lower than MC.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - development of pupil subcultures - LACEYS
Study of a MC grammar school found two related processes within schools. Differentiation: pupils put into sets leading to polarization. This is low stream = deprived status.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - Pro-School subcultures - MAC AN GHAILL
Found a pro school group in two male groups. WC aspiring for MC jobs.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - Pro-School subcultures - SEWELL
May be part of the pro school subculture to avoid stereotyping and labeling.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - research in primary schools - RIST
Study in an American Kinder garden. Children were sat at 3 tables reflecting how they conformed to MC standards. Top table were given more encouragement.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - research in primary schools - SHARP AND GREEN
Children were allowed to develop at their own pace. Thought that if help was required they would ask when in reality MC children who started reading earlier gained more help.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - research in primary schools - HEMPEL JORGENSEN
The ideal WC pupil is quiet and obedient but the MC ideal pupil is to have a good personality and have strong academic ability.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - negative effects - NELL KEDDIE
High and low status knowledge. Streamed pupils were studying courses of the same content. Higher streams were taught abstract, theoretical; higher status knowledge with lower streams being given descriptive, common sense and low status knowledge.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - negative effects - GILLBORN AND YOUDELL
Perceived ability and streaming WC and black pupils are less likely to be perceived as having ability and more likely to be placed on lower sets and entered for foundation tier GCSE's.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - research in secondary - BECKER
Looked at 60 high school teachers. Ideal MC students were closest to their 'ideal student' because other characteristics were emphasized over ability.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - research in secondary - DUNNE AND GAZELY
WC underachieved because labels were attached to parents. They were labelled as uninterested, so WC children were entered into easier exams compared to MC children.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - evaluation - FULLER
Explanations do not explain why teachers share the same view of the ideal pupil. DO NOT take into account the distribution of power in society.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - the self fulfilling prophecy - ROBERT ROSENTHAL AND LENORA JACKSON
Carried out an experiment. Told a school they has a new rest to show who would achieve. They picked a random 20% and told teachers they were the high achievers. 47% of this 20% made significant progress. This was due to more attention.
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Differential achievement - class - internal factors - labeling - 3 stages - HARGREAVES ET AL
1) speculation - look at things like appearance and ability etc. 2) hypothesis is tested - confirmed or contradicted so have more confidence in judgement. 3) Stabilization - pupils action will be evaluated on the type of pupil they are though to be.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - selection and league tables - JACKSON
Girls are more desirable than boys.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - selection and league tables - SLEE
Boys are 4x more likely to be excluded than girls.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - challenging stereotypes in curriculum - WEINER
Teachers began to challenge stereotypes. On the whole sexist material has been removed from educational resources.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - teacher attention - SPENDER
finds teachers spend more time with boys.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - teacher attention - FRANCIS
This interaction is not for academic reasons. In addition, boys are treated more harshly because they have lower expectation.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - teacher attention - SWANN AND GRADDOL
Boys get more chances to speak in class because boisterous behavior attracts the teachers attention. Found girls interaction with teachers was more positive focusing on school work not behavior.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - course work + GCSE's - GORRARD
Argues that the gender gap increased sharply when the GCSE was introduced.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - coursework + GCSE's - MITOS AND BROWN
Girls are more successful at coursework because they are better organised - spend more time on work and are better at meeting deadlines.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - coursework + GCSE's - ELWOOD
Critiques this and says coursework is unlikely to be the only cause.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - role models - BROWNE AND ROLL
Gender domains - the argument being that schools are viewed as a female gender domain so education is a place for women not men. Therefore boys start to work less hard.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - girls achieving more - feminists - WEINER
Secondary school history is a women free zone.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - laddish subcultures - EPSTEIN
WC boys are likely to be harassed if they appear to be swots.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - laddish subcultures - FRANCIS
Found boys were made more concerned about being labelled swots than girls. This was because in WC culture masculinity is about being tough. School work is inferior.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - lack of male primary teachers - YOUGOV
Found that 39% of 8-11 year olds will have no lessons with a male teacher.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - femininization of education - TONY SEWELL
Claims boys fall behind because education has become feminised. Schools don't nurture masculine traits like competitiveness and they celebrate female qualities like methodical working.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - lack of male primary teachers - criticisms - READ
Says females can provide the strict discipline. Disciplinary discourse vs liberal discourse. DD was used by most so it led her to conclude that it isn't just males that provide a strict classroom culture.
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Differential achievement - gender - internal factors - boys underachieving - lack of male primary teachers - criticisms - HAASE
Male dominated but numerically dominated by women.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender domains (Boys behavior within science classrooms) - KELLY
Boys dominate science classrooms by grabbing apparatus and answer questions aimed at girls. This undermines the confidence of girls and then intimidates them from taking the subject. Hence making science seen as a male dominated gender domain.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender identity (feminine identity expression during PE) - PAECHTER
Found that it was typically masculine. Often girls opt out because they don't want to be labelled as unfeminine. Often girls that do take PE find other ways to express their femininity like overcompensating in there appearance.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender identity - COLLEY
States that as the changing content of the curriculum of some subjects changes the gender identity of the subject also changes. eg, music which appealed to girls but is now becoming more popular among boys.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender socialisation (boys interest in technical subjects) - LOBBAN
Gender stereotyping in children's books, with women more clearly linked to traditional domestic roles. Therefore such socialisation may encourage boys to develop more interest in technical and scientific subjects.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Early socialisation - MURPHY AND ELWOOD
Boys read hobby books and information teacts whereas girls are more likely to read stories about people. Helps to explain why boys prefer science and girls prefer english.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gendered subject images (in textbooks) - WEINER
Argues that since the 1980's teachers have challenged such stereotypes.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender domains - BROWNE AND ROSS
Said gender domains are shaped by early experiences.
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Differential achievement - Gender subject choice - Gender domains - NORMAN
Notes that girls and boys are dressed differently during socialisation and are directed towards different activities.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Role of Education - Marxism - The Myth of Meritocracy - BOWLES AND GINTIS

Back

Say that the education system justifies poverty by what they call the 'poor are dumb' theory. Poor think they are in poverty because they didn't work hard enough.

Card 3

Front

Role of Education - Marxism - criticisms of BOWLES AND GINTIS.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Role of Education - Marxism - BOWLES AND GINTIS

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Role of Education - Marxism - PAUL WILLIS

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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