Consensus, conflict, structural, social action and interpretivist theories

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  • Created on: 20-04-18 15:55
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  • Consensus, conflict, structural, social action and interpretivist theories
    • Theories of society
      • Functionalism
        • Durkheim and early fucntionalism
          • Dominant in sociology from the 1940s until the 1970s in the USA and europe
        • Emile Durkheim
          • Organic analogy
          • Suicide study
        • Talcott Parsons
          • Four basic needs that all societies need to satisfy
            • Adaptation
            • Goal attainment
            • Integration
            • Latency
              • Pattern maintenance
              • Tension management
        • Social evolution and differentiation
          • As societies develop, they become more effective and efficient at raising living standards and meeting the needs of their members
        • Evaluation
          • Robert Merton
            • Parson's view of society is too uncritical
          • Sharrock et al
            • Functionalism overemphasises the level of agreement or consensus in society
      • Marxism
        • The Marxist model
          • Applying the model to capitalism
            • The majority of the population accept the inequalities of capitalism because of the way dominant institutions justify the prevailing economic and social situation
          • Classes develop because some people are able t gain ownership and control over the means of production
        • Evaluation
          • The description of capitalism and its inevitable move towards a crisis has simply not occurred
          • The polarisation of people into a rich minority and poor majority has not occurred in the way Marx envisaged
          • Capitalism change significantly after Marx's death
        • Neo-Marxism
          • Antonio Gramsci
            • Placed less emphasis on economics and social structure than most arxists
            • Focused more on the choices and agencies of members of different classes
          • Althusser and the concept of relative autonomy
            • Capitalist society is made up of three interlocking elements
              • The economic system
              • The political system
              • The ideological system
            • The state is made up of two elements
              • Repressive state apparatuses
              • Ideological state apparatuses
          • Evaluation
            • Marxism has become too complex and less powerful as an explanation of how societies develop
        • All history can be divided into 5 epochs
      • Neo-Marxism
        • Antonio Gramsci
          • Placed less emphasis on economics and social structure than most arxists
          • Focused more on the choices and agencies of members of different classes
        • Althusser and the concept of relative autonomy
          • Capitalist society is made up of three interlocking elements
            • The economic system
            • The political system
            • The ideological system
          • The state is made up of two elements
            • Repressive state apparatuses
            • Ideological state apparatuses
        • Evaluation
          • Marxism has become too complex and less powerful as an explanation of how societies develop
      • Social action and interpretivist theories
        • Goffman and the dramaturgical approach
          • Heavily influenced by symbolic intractionism
          • People work out strategies in dealing with others and are constantly altering and manipulating these strategies
        • Phenomenology: the interpretation of meanings
          • Evaluation
            • Too relativistic
          • Edmund Husserl
          • All information about the social world is the product of the human mind
          • Individuals organise the word around them into phenomena, in order to make sense of the chaotic world around them
    • Uniting structural and social action approaches
      • Giddens: the theory of structuration
        • Evaluation
          • Margaret Archer
            • Puts too much emphasis on people's ability to change society by acting differently
        • Structures make social action possible

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