A2 Conscience Mindmap

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  • Created by: Billie
  • Created on: 28-02-13 15:51
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  • CONSCIENCE
    • Biblical Teaching
      • Assumed by biblical writers and early Christian teachers that our conscience is God-given
      • Paul: "They show that what the law require is written on their hearts" (Romans)
      • Traditional teaching - everyone knows right from wrong
        • God has given us this ability
      • Follow conscience = follow divine law
    • Aquinas
      • Natural ability of people to know right/wrong
      • (All) aim for good, avoid evil
      • Synderesis
        • 'Right' reason by which a person acquires knowledge of basic moral principles
          • (All) aim for good, avoid evil
      • Conscienta
        • The actual ethical judgement or decision
      • '... was the mind of man making moral judgements'
      • Principles wrong = conscience wrong
      • Conscience = reasoning used correctly to find out what God sees is good
      • Not just a voice inside us
      • Some Christians - 'rationalistic' - doesn't consider revelation that comes directly from God
    • Butler
      • Distinguishes men and women from animals
        • Possession of the faculty of reflection or conscience
      • "There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions"
      • Determine and judge right/wrong
      • Powerful position within human decision making
        • 'magisterially exerts itself' spontaneously 'without being consulted'
      • Authoritative & automatic
      • Final say in moral decision making
        • Governed and ordered such aspects and was the final moral authority
          • "Had it strength, as it has right; had it power as it has manifest authority, it would absolutely govern the world"
        • "Had it strength, as it has right; had it power as it has manifest authority, it would absolutely govern the world"
      • Hierarchy
        • Conscience (supreme authority)
          • 'Principle of reflection' (approve/ disapprove our actions; God-given)
            • Self-love and benevolence
              • Basic drives
      • Conscience = God-given guide to right conduct... always be followed
      • Wicked to blind one's conscience
        • Corruption of conscience by self-deception is worse than the evil act that results from it
    • Newman
      • Intuitionist
      • Follows conscience = follows divine law
      • 'Messenger' of God
        • Feel this intuitive moral knowledge and make decisions...
          • ... God speaking to us
      • More than simply 'a law of the mind'
      • Doesn't invent truth
        • Detects truth
      • Augustine
        • Agreed
        • God speaking to us
        • Urged Christians to consider their conscience seriously
          • "Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do, see God as your witness"
    • Freud
      • No such thing as a soul
      • View of the mind essentially mechanistic
      • Human personality
        • The id
          • Unconscious self
          • Contains basic drives and repressed memories
          • Amoral
        • The ego
          • Conscious self
          • Part seen by outside world
        • The super-ego
          • Set of moral codes given to us by outside influences
          • Moral code/ conscience
      • Connected with sense of guilt when we go against our conscience
      • Conscience is  a construct of   the mind
        • Religious people
          • In response to perceptions of God
        • Non-religious people
          • In response to externally imposed authority
      • No absolute moral law
        • Experiences
        • Culturally relative
          • Explains variations in moral codes in different societies
    • Piaget
      • Heteronomous morality
        • Approx 5-10 yrs old
        • Conscience still immature
          • Rules  not to be broken
            • Punishment to be expected
              • Consequences determine right/ wrong
      • Autonomous morality
        • Approx 10+ yrs old
        • Develop  own rules
          • Understand how rules operate and help society
          • Child less dependent on others for morality
      • Kohlberg
        • Behaving in socially acceptable ways because of authority figures
          • Keeping the law
            • Caring for others
              • Respect for universal principles and demands of an individual conscience
            • (Most adults never get beyond this point)
    • Fromm
      • Authoritarian Conscience
        • Influenced by external authorities
          • Apply rules and punishments
            • Feel guilty when break rules
              • Displease authority eg God, Nazi
      • Humanistic  Conscience
        • Assesses and evaluates our behaviour
          • Judge how successful we are as people
            • Use own discoveries, teachings and examples of others to give us personal integrity and moral honesty
              • Better view
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