Companion animal nutrition 

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  • Companion animal nutrition
    • Energy
      • lipids, carbs and proteins are energy providerscarbs = glucose - main energy formmammalian protein cannot be stored
    • Lipids (fatty acids)
      • Lipids - consists of triglycerides  - 3x fatty acids + 1x glycerol
      • characteristicsof fat determined by lipids:         saturated         unsaturated   polyunsaturated
      • function:          supply energy                         aids absorbtion of lipid soluble vitamins           -supply essential fatty acids                -needed to cell membrane, hormones, and control water loss through skin
      • Digestion of Lipids
        • 1. starts in stomach - GASTIC LIPASE breaks down lipids in to fatty acids and gycerol
        • 2. small intestine - pancreatic juice: bile: smaller droplets are made and absorbed through intestinal wall.
        • 3. large lipoprotien transport broken down lipids to mitochondrion
    • Proteins
      • Are large complex molecules composed of amino acids (AA)
      • 100''s of AA exist but only 21 are used the animal protien
      • functions
        • muscle contraction (actin and myosin)
        • skin, hair and nails (keratin)
        • blood (haemoglobin)
        • enzymes, hormones and antibodies
      • digestion of proteins
        • 1. broken down to polypeptides in stomach by pepsin ans HCI
        • 2. Polypeptides broken down to amino acids in small intestine by pancreatic enzymes
        • 3. amino acids absorbed through intestinal wall to the liver and other tissues
        • 4. synthesis of tissue protein, of enzymes, albumin and hormones used for energy
    • Carbohydrates
      • simple sugars: monosaccharie  (glucose) diasaccharies (lactose)
      • oligosaccharides: 3-9 sugar units (raffinose) if it contains fructose: fructo - oligsaccharides (FOS)
      • polysaccharide:  starches (amylase, glycogen) fibres (cellulose)
      • simple carbs and straches are used as glucose sources to - provide energy, provide heat, as building block for other nutrients and provde energy storage through fat
      • fibre: promotes and regulates bowel function, maintains colonic health. fermented in caecum, increases bulk of food as most carnivorous can't digest the fibres
      • Digestion of simple carbs and straches
        • mechanical by mouth (chewing) Enzymatic- stomach )gastric juice + peptic acid): minor- small intestine (enzymes): majorMicrobial - large intestine (bacterial enzymes and fermentation)
      • digestion of fibres
    • WATER
      • Most  important nutrient of all! (animals can lose half their fat and protein and yet still survive (LOSS OF 15% WATER CAN KILL US!)
      • water intake should roughly be equivalent to daily energy intake in kcal-for healthy dog/cat: 50ml/kg BW/d
      • Water should be clean and fresh. be freely available (UNLESS EXCESSIVE VOMITING)
      • Water  should be increased for the following cases: in increased environmental temp, lactation,  increased body temp, diarrhea  vomiting, severe bleeding

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