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  • Setting
      • London (where Dickens lived and saw worst of what is being presented)
      • Spreads into the countryside to represent the universal nature of the theme
      • Miners on a moor, lighthouse keepers and sailors out at sea
        • People gain comfort through companion-   ship and Christmas spirit
      • The isolated dead man: 'plundered and bereft, unwatched, uncared for..'
      • The graveyard; 'overrun by grass and weeds, growth of vegetation's death'.
      • These scenes are warnings for Scrooge, demonstrating the dangers of isolating yourself.
      • Links to Scrooge in Stave 1 (solitary as an oyster)
    • Contrasting settings allows Dickens to convey his message
      • Actions are more important than location and should always make the best in bad situations.
      • Money doesn't create happiness
      • Belle's family 'full of joy and gratitude'
      • Cratchit family 'happy, grateful, pleased with one another'
      • Fred and his guests burst into 'a fresh roar of laughter'
      • Dickens presents ideals of living
        • The true essence of happiness comes from family and friends, not wealth.
      • STAVE 1:    just the office and scrooge's 'melancholy' and 'dreary' house
        • STAVE 2:  school, Fezziwig's party, Belle's home
          • STAVE 3: Cratchit's house, other places, Fred's party
            • STAVE 4: ugly side of the city 'reeked with crime, filth and misery' and gravestone
              • STAVE 5: streets, church, Fred's party, office again


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