Cold War Stalemate.2

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  • Cold War Stalemate
    • The Geneva Summit 1955
      • Khrushchev knew Russia needed conventional forces.
      • 1955 FDG admitted into NATO and rearmament began.
        • USA placed permanent troops in Europe to prevent German militarism.
      • Open Skies proposal; Eisenhower called for each side to provide details of military installations.
        • Khrushchev rejected the proposal. He was aware of the US U-2 spy plane and had nothing comparable.
      • Eisenhower proposed unified Germany, free elections and Germany's freedom to ensure its own security.
        • Effectively meant Germany would become part of NATO.
      • Khrushchev would only contemplate German reunification if Germany was demilitarised and neutral.
        • Agreed on the principle of free elections but no procedure was set up to make this happen.
    • Problems over Berlin and Germany
      • West Germany joining NATO meant Khrushchev was concerned about US nuclear missile deployment.
      • Between 1949-58 about 188,000 professionals left East Germany.
      • Khrushchev's ultimatum: West had 6 months to accept West Berlin as an independent political entity or USSR would surrender its control of its zone to the GDR.
        • This would give the East Germany all control of access to West Berlin, which would force the USA to recognise the GDR as an independent state.
      • Camp David talks 1959: discussed issues like disarmament and issues in Berlin. Agreed on diplomacy over force.
      • Likely that Khrushchev visiting USA for Camp David talks led to a further deterioration in Sino-Soviet relations.

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