Coastal Flooding case study

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  • Created by: charlia
  • Created on: 29-04-15 13:29
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  • Coastal Flooding - Tsunami Southern Asia 2004.
    • Facts
      • An earthquake that was a 9.0 on the Richter Scale, the epicentre was off the western coast of Somatra in Indonesia
      • The waves reached more than 2km inland at Trincomalee in the north east of sri lanka.
      • Waves up to 30m high hit Sumatra within minutes of the earthquake.
    • Impacts
      • Social
        • deadliest tsunami recorded, an estimated 230000 killed or missing.
        • 1.7 million made homeless
        • sources of fresh drinking water polluted.
        • 400,000 lost their jobs in Sri Lanka alone
      • Economic
        • Estimated cost of the initial damage is estimated at between $8 and $15 billion
        • Fishing equipment and boats destroyed, fishing is a large part of the economy.
        • Salinisation reduced soil fertility, crop production will be reduced for several years.
        • 25% of hotels in southern Thailand were closed for at least 6 months, tourism is important to the economy of many countries affected.
          • Number of foreign visitors to Phuket dropped by 80% in 2005.
      • Environmental
        • 8 million litres of oil were released into the environment after two oil plants in Indonesia were destroyed.
        • The high salt content of the floodwater destroyed the natural balance of many ecosystems e.g. the Karagan Lagoon in southern Sri Lanka.
        • Mangrove forests damaged by the force of the waves or covered in layers of silt.
    • Human activity which increased the Impacts.
      • Mangrove forests protected parts of the Sri Lankan coast by absorbing wave energy. However, pressure for tourist development led to destruction of mangrove forests in other areas - estimated that Thailand has lost up to half since 1975.
      • Thought that healthy coral reefs surrounding the Maldives acted as a breakwater and prevented destruction of low lying islands. Illegal coral mining and the use of dynamite in blast fishing has destroyed many coral reefs in the indian ocean.

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