CHD

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  • Created by: Emilefree
  • Created on: 02-04-15 12:58
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  • CHD
    • Atheroma
      • Fatty Streaks
        • Accumulation of white blood cells that have taken up LDLs
        • Enlarge to form an atheromatous plaque
          • Reduces size of lumen
            • Thrombosis
              • If atheroma breaks through endothelium of blood vessel a rough surface is created.
                • Forms a blood clot or thrombus
                  • Blocks the blood vessel meaning region of tissue is blocked off and dies
      • Aneurysm
        • Myocardial Infarction
          • Refers to a reduced supply of oxygen to the muscles of the heart
          • Results from a blockage in a coronary artery
          • Thrombosis
            • If atheroma breaks through endothelium of blood vessel a rough surface is created.
              • Forms a blood clot or thrombus
                • Blocks the blood vessel meaning region of tissue is blocked off and dies
    • Risk factors
      • Smoking
        • Carbon monoxide
          • Binds irrevesibly to haemoglobin
            • Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
              • Heart must work harder, raising blood pressure
              • Insufficient amount of oxygen to supply heart with during exercise
                • Leads to angina or myocardial infarction
        • Nicotine
          • Stimulates production of adrenaline
            • Which raises blood pressure
          • Makes platelets sticky so a higher risk of thrombosis
      • Blood cholesterol
        • Essential component of membranes
          • Carried in plasma as tiny spheres of lipoproteins
        • HDLs
          • Remove cholesterol from tissues and transports to liver for excretion
            • Protects against CHD
        • LDLs
          • Transports cholesterol from liver to tissues
            • Leads to development of atheroma and CHD
      • Diet
        • High levels of salt=increase in BP
        • High levels of unsaturated fat
          • Increase in LDL levels
  • Atheroma weakens artery wall, which swells up
    • Bursts leading to haemorrhage and loss of blood to region
    • Aneurysm
      • Myocardial Infarction
        • Refers to a reduced supply of oxygen to the muscles of the heart
        • Results from a blockage in a coronary artery
  • High blood pressure
    • Already high pressure in arteries so heart must work harder to pump blood into them
      • More prone to failure
    • High BP in arteires increases likelihood of developing aneurysm, causing haemorrhage
    • To resist high BP, artery walls thicken & harden narrowing lumen and restricting bloodflow
    • Risk factors
      • Smoking
        • Carbon monoxide
          • Binds irrevesibly to haemoglobin
            • Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
              • Heart must work harder, raising blood pressure
              • Insufficient amount of oxygen to supply heart with during exercise
                • Leads to angina or myocardial infarction
        • Nicotine
          • Stimulates production of adrenaline
            • Which raises blood pressure
          • Makes platelets sticky so a higher risk of thrombosis
      • Blood cholesterol
        • Essential component of membranes
          • Carried in plasma as tiny spheres of lipoproteins
        • HDLs
          • Remove cholesterol from tissues and transports to liver for excretion
            • Protects against CHD
        • LDLs
          • Transports cholesterol from liver to tissues
            • Leads to development of atheroma and CHD
      • Diet
        • High levels of salt=increase in BP
        • High levels of unsaturated fat
          • Increase in LDL levels

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