characteristics of schizophrenia

  • Created by: Elyseee
  • Created on: 11-01-21 15:11
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  • characteristics of schizophrenia
    • positive symptoms
      • Positive symptoms - symptoms/behaviours exhibited in addition to ‘normal’ behaviours, symptoms that they wouldn’t have if they didn't have schizophrenia eg) hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking
      • Hallucinations - unreal perceptions, often reported as hearing voices but can present themselves in any sensory modality. Lewandowski et al 2009 - 20% people with schizophrenia have tactile hallucinations. Formication - sensations resembling small insects eg) spiders crawling on or under skin, sensation is so real they often don't initially realise it’s a hallucination
      • Delusions - beliefs that are unreal, experienced with no evidence or support. Many types, most common delusions of persecution and grandiosity. Delusions of persecution based on idea that a person/group of people/organisation want to harm the individual. Delusions of grandiosity, individual believes they are special/powerful/have superior knowledge
    • disordered thinking
      • Evident through examining speech, described as derailment/knight’s move thinking
      • Person’s thoughts/discourse jump from one topic to another, no logical flow of discussion
      • Speech is hard to follow, may be muffled and incoherent, can be frustrating for those with schizophrenia and those trying to communicate with them
      • Sometimes report their thoughts are not their own, known as though insertion, believes thoughts have been placed by a third party
    • negative symptoms
      • Negative symptoms - symptom/behaviours that inhibit people with schizophrenia from demonstrating ‘normal’ behaviour like holding conversation eg) alogia, avolition, anhedonia, flatness of effect and catatonic behaviour
      • alogia - poverty of speech, reduction in total amount of speech, lacking meaning in speech
      • Avolition - occurs when people are seemingly indifferent to their surroundings, show no will or desire to take part in activities, can include work or personal activities they may have once enjoyed, lack of goal directed behaviour, may be perceived as uninterested
      • Anhedonia - individual does not react appropriately to pleasurable experiences, eg) rugby fan might not demonstrate any pleasure when their favourite team wins
      • Flatness of effect - individuals appear to have no emotion, with little to no facial expressions, behaviour can be perceived as apathetic and speech is monotonous
      • Catatonic behaviour - can range from fast repetitive movements to little or no movement, they may pace or wander in circles. Echopraxia may occur, when they mimic movements of those around them. Individual may remain in seemingly uncomfortable positions for long periods of time, sometimes with strange posture and facial contortions, they may demonstrate waxy flexibility when moved (limbs and body can be moved but they remain in a rigid and strange posture)


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