First-rank symptoms (Kurt Schneider)
- identified a group of symptoms that distinguished schizophrenia from other disorders
- helped clinicians to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia
Differences between ICD-10 and DSM-TR-IV
Duration: DSM requires symptoms to be present for 6 months. ICD requires 1 month.
Emphasis: DSM emphasizes the course of the disorder and the accompanying functional impairment. ICD focuses more on first-rank symptoms (these are symptoms which are rarely found in disorders other than schizophrenia).
Dimensions: DSM is multi-axial which means that various factors are taken into consideration before a diagnosis is made e.g. personality type.
Different types of schizophrenia: ICD-10 distinguishes 7 types, DSM has 5.
- Paranoid schizophrenia: Involves delusions of persecution and hallucinations. Reduction of negative symptoms such as lack of emotional expression and incoherent speech.
- Hebephrenic schizophrenia: Behaviour is aimless and disorganised. Speech is incoherent. More…