Chapter 15 - Animal Responses

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  • Created on: 06-05-16 09:49
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  • Chapter 15 - Animal Responses
    • The nervous system
      • Central nervous system
        • Mostly consists of intermediate neurones
        • The brain and the spinal cord
          • Both surrounded by cerebro-spinal fluid, secreted by meninges
      • Peripheral nervous system
        • Somatic nervous system
          • This is mostly under voluntary control, and consists of sensory and motor neurones
        • Autonomic nervous system
          • Sympathetic
            • CNS --> preganglionic neurone --> Motor neurone (starting in the autonomic ganglion)
            • Stimulates organs
            • Mostly uses noradrenaline but sometimes uses acetylcholine
            • 'Fight or flight'
          • Parasympathetic
            • 'rest and digest'
            • Contains neurones that carry the impulse actually go inside the wall of the organ it effects
            • All cholinergic synapses
          • The motor neurones that supply the viscera (internal organs), this system also includes preganglionic neurones
    • The Brain
      • Structure
        • Surrounded by cerebro-spinal fluid
        • Protected by the cranium and meninges
        • Has a blood-brain barrier to prevent the brain being exposed to potentially harmful substances
      • Cerebral cortex - higher order thinking
      • Broca's area - Production of language when speaking and writing
      • Wernicke's area - Understanding of language
    • Muscular movement
      • Three types of muscle: skeletal (striated), cardiac and smooth
      • Made of sarcomeres
        • M & Z lines
        • Actin and myosin filaments
        • I band only contains actin, H band only myosin, A band both
      • Contraction
        • Sliding filament model
        • Stimulated at neuromuscular junctions


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