Chapter 16 - Animal Behaviour

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  • Chapter 16 - Animal Behaviour
    • Learning
      • Any behaviour that is not innate
      • Habituation
        • A type of learning where an organism learns not to respond to a repeated stimulus
          • Example: Nereis and the moving shadows
      • Imprinting
        • A type of learning in which an organism recognises an object/another organism  as something it should remain near (e.g. its mother)
          • Example: Konrad Lorenz and the goslings
      • Classical conditioning
        • A type of learning where an animal learns to respond to a stimulus which is different to the original one
          • Example: Pavlov's dogs
      • Operant conditioning
        • A type of learning in which an animal learns to carry out a particular behaviour to either gain a reward or avoid an unpleasant stimulus
          • Example: Rats in a Skinner box
      • Latent learning
        • Learning for no apparent benefit, manifests later in different circumstances
          • Example: Rats in a maze
      • Insight learning
        • 'A-ha!' moment
          • Example: Sultan the chimp
          • Example: Pigeons and the box
    • Innate behaviour
      • Behaviour similar across all individuals in a species
      • 'hard-wired' - carried in genes
      • Escape reflex
        • Quick response to a stimulus that results in a movement away from a predator. Example: Earthworm retreating into its burrow
      • Taxis
        • A movement towards/away from a stimulus Example: Maggots moving away from light
      • Kinesis
        • A response to the difference in an environmental factor in one place compared to another. Example: Woodlice and damp areas
    • Primate behaviour
      • Social behaviour
        • Benefits of social behaviour are: better able to find food, easier predator avoidance and being better able to protect their territory
      • Have social relationships
    • Genes and human behaviour
      • Particular alleles of particular genes can have significant effects on our behaviour
      • Different receptor alleles have different effects
  • Associative learning

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