Causes of the First Crusade

  • Created by: holly231
  • Created on: 02-09-18 18:55
View mindmap
  • Causes of the first crusade
    • Christian disunity
      • In 1054, there was the Great Schism. This was a divide between the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
      • The Byzantine Empire was Greek Orthodox
      • The Germans and the Normans were Roman Catholic, as was their pope
    • Papal threats
      • The Papacy had been in disagreement with the German Emperor since Pope Gregory VII over who had the authority to appoint bishops
        • In the Investiture Contest, there was a pope in Rome and Pope Urban II in Clermont
    • Fighting in Europe
      • The knights of Europe were violent and would fight often
        • There was a system where dominance was established from battles in war
      • The Church sought to reform this fighting and bring about piety to Europe
        • The church reform movement
    • Economic benefits
      • Many  found land and wealth in the Outremer and the crusader states
        • However it is unlikely that this was the main reason for the first crusade
          • Many crusaders were the first born sons or even had land themselves
          • It cost a lot of money to go on the crusades, which took time and were a significant threat
            • There were many better ways than this to get money
            • Most crusaders sold all their worldly goods to go on the crusade, leaving them worse off than before
      • There was a system of primogeniture in place so only the first born son would inherit land
        • However it is unlikely that this was the main reason for the first crusade
          • Many crusaders were the first born sons or even had land themselves
          • It cost a lot of money to go on the crusades, which took time and were a significant threat
            • There were many better ways than this to get money
            • Most crusaders sold all their worldly goods to go on the crusade, leaving them worse off than before
    • Significance of Jerusalem
      • Jerusalem was a site of pilgrimage for Christians
        • Catholics believed that worshiping at significant places or in front of relics would get them closer to God and heaven
        • People were terribly afraid of going to hell
          • The church was the authority over people's lives and pushed this opinion
      • Jesus was said to have been crucified in Jerusalem
        • Jerusalem was one of 5 patriarchs, along with Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople and Rome
      • It was also the holy city for Jews as the sight of the former kingdom of Solomon
      • Muslims also saw Jerusalem as of great significance
      • Jerusalem was somewhat between the Islamic and Christian worlds
      • However, Jerusalem had been in Muslim hands for over 400 years. What had changed now to make this an issue?
        • This was not the first time a crusade had been suggested; Pope Gregory VII had suggested one, but it never began due to the divisions in Christianity and his conflict with the German Emperor
    • The church reform movement
    • Religion
      • People were terrified of the devil
      • Before the Prince's Crusade, there was a Peasant Crusade of poor people who had been inspired to take up the cross. It failed, but nonetheless showed piety was a significant factor in the first crusade
      • Many crusaders walked the final mile to Jerusalem without any worldly goods, as though on a religious pilgrimage
      • In his speech at Clermont, Pope Urban II had called people to sign somewhat of a religious oath, in making them 'take up the cloth'. His words spread quickly amongst the Franks
    • Muslim Threat
      • Leading up to the First Crusade, the Muslim threat had been increasing significantly
      • Constantinople was now the final city before the Muslim world
        • This was a threat to Emperor Alexios, who then called for help
          • The Byzantine Empire had been diminishing and it was now under great threat from the Persians, Normans, and Turks

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Crusades coursework resources »