Reasons for the crusades

  • Created by: ellagb
  • Created on: 10-04-17 16:22
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  • Reasons for the crusades
    • Why it was called for by Pope Urban II
      • Muslim occupation of the Holy land
        • The Turks held control over Jerusalem since the 7th century
          • Until the 11th century, Christian pilgrims were allowed access
            • it became more difficult as Seljuk power began to grow in Asia Minor
              • The route was less secure from raids, fewer cities had Byzantine control, and it had expensive entry tolls
      • After a 10 year long war with the antipope, Urban decided to choose a new path of the papacy
        • He wanted Europe to stop fighting against the Pope and fight in his name instead
    • Why people went on a crusade
      • Church and belief
        • Considered an 'infidel' or a 'heretic' if religious instruction of the pope wasn't followed
        • In this era faith was an important aspect of people's everyday lives
          • Contributing to this is the belief of the after life
            • Christians made donations and went on such pilgrimages to minimise their time in purgatory and maximise their chances of going to heaven
              • These religious practices were seen as a form of pennance
          • This gave the Pope great influence on people
          • Cluniac reform movement encouraged people to act on their sins
            • Actively promoted the Jerusalem pilgrimage as a method of this
              • There was constant flow of people going on these pilgrimages, e.g. in 1046 between 7000-1200 German pilgrims travelled to Jerusalem
        • The theory of just war
          • Through asking knights to kill he was also asking them to break one of the ten commandments, meaning they would have to go to Hell for eternity
            • To avoid this and appeal more crusaders, he came up with the theory of just war along with Countess Mathilda of Tuscany.
              • Mathilda gathered a series of canonists (a person who studies church law)
          • Was the developed idea of penitential warfare , created by Augustine of Hippo
            • How it was applied to the first crusade: -Good reason -Good intentions       -An official leader
        • The Papal reform movement
          • The crusade needed more factors that appealed to knights as justification was not enough , i.e. Just war theory
            • The Pope was unable to offer money as it would cost a great amount and he was already asking knights to spend several times the average income to go
              • Instead he offered Indulgence, which was essentially a free pass from Hell, and it came in two varieties
                • Type one: 'Remissio Peccatorum' , translating to remission of all sins. it ensured no matter how much they had already sinned they would go to heaven if they went on the crusade
                • Type two: 'The Plenary Indulgence' , this included being let off for all their sins so far
                  • Seemed more convincing as : it was a gift not earned and the church had a theory to back it up
                    • This theory was called the treasury of the church, meaning they had a store of merit  from Christ
      • Warfare
        • Development
          • Improvements in technology allowed them to
            • Key changes: -Stirrup on the horse and high saddle improved secuirty on horse back.-horses were shod so they were able to cover rough terrain- also they made their uniform heavily armoured for protecion
              • These changes proved to be a success in the battle of hastings in 1066, demonstrating potential for the up coming century
        • The Byzantine empire had protected Christianity in the East but now its position was under threat
    • The aim
      • Jerualem held two important religious location
        • the calvary: where Christ was crusified
        • The Holy Sepulchre: where  Christ was resurrected
        • These sites made the location a traditional pilgrimage destination
    • Papal support for Crusades
      • Paschal II
        • Threatened to excommunicate any first crusaders who abandoned it or refused to set off in the first place
      • Urban II
        • After launching the idea of the crusade at the Council of Clermont nov 1095, he then went on a 2000 mile preaching tour
        • Came up with the ceremony of granting the cross, providing a visual symbol for the crusade
          • this idea was then developed by Alexander III, by spreading Christendom, publishing his work in all churches
      • Clement III
        • Got financial support from the Canterbury and Glenoa clergy
      • Influence of preachers
        • eg the Archbishop of Canterbury went on a preaching tour in Wales 1188, and accordingly enlisted 3000 crusaders
        • How did preachers recruit crusaders
          • people of a town would gather and prepare to listen to their message
            • the main part of the ceramony would involve a public Invitatio or apeal to take the cross where they made a vow to wear the cross until the vow had been forfilled
            • Preachers had a range of tactics to improve success
              • eg go to a town on a holy day, maximising atmosphere for the audience
          • Improvements to the selection of preachers
            • Urban initially had little control over preachers
            • The idea of using papal legates became fully utilised in the fourth crusade
          • Key preacher
            • Bernard of Clairvaux: powerful preacher for the second crusade
    • Changing of political situation
      • Threats to the Byzantine empire
        • The Byzantine empire was initially survived the collapse of the roman empire, under control of Alexius I
          • Capital was constantinople, centre of Greek orthadox church, as it had split from latin their relationship began to improve in 1090's
        • Seljuk Turks had taken Aia minor from them  and in 1078 they also took Nicea ( 100k from Constantinople)
          • If nothing was done to stop Suleyman, the Seljuk leader, Byzantine would fall under muslim control
        • Alexius' appeal to Urban II
          • hHe wanted Nicea back under his control, creating a buffer between the Turks
    • Urbans politcal problems
      • Challenges from the German empire
        • Due to feuds between the  previos pope and Henry Iv of Germany, Urban was not in a good position
          • Due to Investiture controversy
          • Germany supported the antipope in Urbans earlier years of being pope
      • Problems in France
        • King Philip had gone against church law, he abandoned his wife for someone else and imprisoned an opposing Bishop
          • The Pope had no choice but to excommunicate him
        • Violence growing in France
          • Castellans used violence to assert authority
            • Cluniac reformers promoted everyday violence, especially towards chrudch men was unnaccetable
              • The church put in two measures to avoid this behaviour: Peace of God and Truce of God
                • Peace of  God were orders for Ecclesiastical protection
                • Truce of god was to limit violence to only certain days of the year
          • how a crusade could help
            • Gives the French nights a holy purpose for their violence
    • Defence of the crusader states
      • Threat from Zengi and the second crusade
        • Zengis campaigns were initially focused on Antioch
        • his most well known achievement was the capture of Edessa 1144, where he left 15000 dead
          • this was a crisis that showed the need for defence
      • Threat from Saladin and the third crusade
        • Loss of Jerusalem
        • Egyptian Vizier began attempts of invasion in 1170
      • There were failed attempts for calls of a crusade in means of defence showing it was not enough to prompt a crusade
        • eg. Pope Alexander III called for one as Bohemond III was captured by Nur ad Din and increased threat to antioch
    • What inspired knights to go on a crusade
      • Nature of knighthood
        • Devlopments in armour etc
        • Warfare experience
        • 10% of the 60000 that set off in 1096 were knights
      • Motivations in 1095 ( 11th century knights)
        • Lordship ties, family connections and links to Cluny
          • Surrounded by enthusiasm
        • Settlement in thecrusader states
          • The opportunity to gain land was used as a recruitment tactic in the first crusade
          • Power
            • Bohemond of toronto went on the crusade as he wanted to be a prince
          • 200/300 out of 1200 knights at the battle of ascolon settled there
      • The development of Chivalric values
        • In the 12th century Chivalric values changed what it ment to be a knight
          • Crusading became a duty
            • More foucs on winning wars, courage in battle
          • A new code of behaviour
          • Took up roles as soldiers rather than crusaders
            • Protecting Christianity and pilgrims
              • The military orders
                • Templar movement
                  • Escorted pilgrims to protect them from ever present muslim threat
                • Hospitaller movement
                  • main responsibility was to run St Johns hospital
                  • Militarised in the 1130s, king fulk donated a castle in 1136
                    • by 1144 they had a big state of tripoli to defend
  • Urban II
    • After launching the idea of the crusade at the Council of Clermont nov 1095, he then went on a 2000 mile preaching tour
    • Came up with the ceremony of granting the cross, providing a visual symbol for the crusade
      • this idea was then developed by Alexander III, by spreading Christendom, publishing his work in all churches
  • people of a town would gather and prepare to listen to their message
    • the main part of the ceramony would involve a public Invitatio or apeal to take the cross where they made a vow to wear the cross until the vow had been forfilled
    • Preachers had a range of tactics to improve success
      • eg go to a town on a holy day, maximising atmosphere for the audience

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Frankie_evans

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Frankie_evans

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Jasmeen1974

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