C3 - OCR 21st Century

C3 Mind Map for OCR 21st Century

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  • C3 - Chemistry
    • Moving Continents
      • Rocks' magnetic alignment changes over time
        • This allows scientists to date rock using striations of magnetism in the sediment
      • When Britain was swampy,  coal was formed due to the high plant coverage
        • Coal
      • When Britain was underwater, chalk was formed due to the calcium carbonate's reaction to dead shellfish
        • Three main products of the UK:
          • Salt
          • Limestone
          • Coal
        • Limestone
        • Salt
    • Salt
      • NaCl - Sodium Chloride
      • Uses:
        • Grit
          • Salt gives the water a lower freezing point by making the water impure.
        • Flavouring
        • Preserve
      • Extraction:
        • Seawater (evaporation)
        • Underground (mining)
          • Solution mining involves pumping water down into rock salt, thereby dissolving it and pumping the brine back up.
      • Salt extraction can cause ground sinks, affect water supply and contaminate soil
      • Foods
        • Risk: The chance of a hazard affecting people negatively
        • Hazard: A threat to people's welfare
    • Alkalis
      • Over pH 7
      • Used in cleaning products
      • Sources:
        • Potash
        • Ammonia
        • Manufactured
      • Can neutralise acids
      • 1700s industrial revolution shortage
      • Bases
        • A substance that will neutralize an acid
    • Making Alkalis
      • Alkalis
        • Over pH 7
        • Used in cleaning products
        • Sources:
          • Potash
          • Ammonia
          • Manufactured
        • Can neutralise acids
        • 1700s industrial revolution shortage
        • Bases
          • A substance that will neutralize an acid
      • Hydrochloric Acid + Manganese Dioxide --> Chlorine + Manganese Chloride + Water
    • Electrolysis
      • Brine is water with salt dissolved within it.
      • The process by which ionic substances are decomposed into simpler substances when an electric current is passed through them.
      • Separated into sodium hydroxide, hydrogen and chlorine.
      • Sodium hydroxide used for soaps and cleaners, paper making and extracting aluminium.
      • Hydrogen is used for fuel and margarine
      • Chlorine is an antibacterial and is used in bleach
    • Industrial Chemicals
      • PVC - polyvinyl chloride
      • PVC plasticizers can bio accumulate in top predators
      • Unplasticized PVC is rigid, strong and waterproof
      • Plasticized PVC is flexible and insulative
      • PVC is not a hydrocarbon
      • To analyse the impact of the product, one most consider the manufacture, the use and the disposal

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