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C4 ­ Chemical patterns

C4.1 What are the patterns in the properties of elements

Elements are the `building blocks' of all materials ­ the atoms of each element have a different
proton number. The elements are arranged in order of ascending atomic (or proton) number, this is
the number of…

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During, the period of the 18th century actual masses could not be measured so they were compared
against the mass of hydrogen (the lightest) ­ this is called relative atomic mass. It is now measured
1 the mass of a carbon atom.
relative to 12

The periodic table gives us…

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Because there are patterns in the way the elements are arranged in the periodic table, it can be used
to predict their properties and interpret data

Group 1 ­ Alkali metals

There are six metals in Group 1

As we go down the group, the alkali
metals become more reactive.…

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Some chemicals can harm us if they are not handled carefully ­ hazard symbols are used to identify
the danger posed by each chemical and what care should be taken

Hazard Symbol Meaning
These substances attack living tissues, including eyes and skin
and can damage materials

These substances can…

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The following hazard symbols are found on alkali metals and their compounds:

Chemical Hazard symbol


Lithium chloride




Therefore when working with Group 1 metals, the following precautions should be taken:

Use small amounts of very dilute concentrations
Wear safety glasses and use safety screens

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There are five non-metals in group 7

The halogens have low melting points
and boiling points ­ this is a typical
property of non-metals. Fluorine has the
lowest melting point and boiling point ­
the melting points and boiling points
then increase as you go down the group.

The halogens…

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Bromine, Br

Iodine, I

Therefore working with halogens, the following precautions should be taken:

Wear safety goggles
Work in a fume cupboard
Make sure the room is well ventilated
Use small amounts of very dilute concentrations
Avoid working near naked flames

Need to know

Hydrogen, H2
Water, H2O…

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An atom has the same number of protons (positive) as electrons (negative), so the atom as a
whole is neutral (i.e. it has no electrical charge)
A proton has the same mass as a neutron
The mass of an electron is negligible (nearly nothing) when compared to a proton or…

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The electron configuration is written as a series of numbers, e.g., oxygen is 2.6; aluminium is
2.8.3 and potassium is

The chemical properties of an element are determined by its electron arrangement

C4.3 How do chemists explain the properties of compounds of Group 1 and Group 7 elements


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Most non-metal elements are molecular and most of these consist of molecules with just two atoms
joined together. Most compounds, between non-metal elements are also molecular.

Intermolecular forces ­ all of these substances have very strong covalent bonds between the
atoms, but much weaker forces holding the molecules together. When…




Your resources are really good, but I am unable to download the Physics P1, P2, P3 and I really want to!

Danil Vekaria


Can you please post C1 C2 C3 Notes as well as that we be helpful your are very good at making clear and easy to read notes 



the download always fails???



why is it not allowing me to download or view on word online



it takes a bit long to download but try a few times thats wat i did and it worked



Thanks for the download



GREAT - seriously GREAT! :)

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