A level - Biopsychology

  • Created by: Make7M
  • Created on: 25-04-18 10:10
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  • Biopsychology
    • NS
      • Specialised network of cells in human body - primary internal communication system
        • Collects, processes and responds to information in the environment
        • Co-ordinates different organs and cells in the body
      • CNS (Central)
        • Spinal Cord (Transmits messages to and from the brain to PNS, also involved in reflex actions)
        • Brain (Involved in vital functioning, and problem and planning)
      • PNS (Peripheral)
        • Somatic (Controls action of skeletal muscles)
        • Autonomic (Controls unconscious actions, regulates atomic processes)
          • Sympathetic (Controls 'fight or flight' preparing body to respond to danger)
            • Fight or flight - the way an animal responds to stress as it becomes physiologically aroused to fight or run.
            • Inc. heart rate Inc. breathing Dilate pupils Inhibit saliva Inhibit digestion
          • Para-sympathetic (Brings body back to normal state after 'fight or flight')
            • Dec heart rate Dec breathing Constricts pupils Stimulates saliva production Stimulates digestion
    • Endocrine system
      • Works alongside NS, to control vital functioning in the body
        • Hormones are secreted into bloodstream and affect any cell body that has a receptor for that particular hormone
        • Stressor perceived
          • Hypothalamus triggers activity in sympathetic part of ANS
            • ANS changes from normal resting state (parasympathetic) to physiologically aroused (sympathetic)
              • Adrenaline released from Adrenal Medulla
                • Adrenaline triggers physiological changes (inc. heart rate)
                  • When threat passed, parasympathetic returns body to resting state
      • Pituitary (Master) gland
        • Regulating Endocrine system
      • Adrenal gland
        • Facilitate release of Adrenaline
      • Testes
        • Facilitate release of Testosterone
      • Ovaries
        • Facilitate release of Oestrogen
    • Structure, Function of Neurons
      • Transmit signals electrically and chemically in the NS
      • Sensory neuron
        • Carry messages from PNS to CNS, after receiving information from stimulus
      • Relay neuron
        • Carry messages in CNS, between other relay neurons, from sensory to motor
      • Motor neuron
        • Connect CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)
      • Neuron
        • Dendrites - receive impulse from other neurons, directing towards cell body
        • Nucleus - genetic material of cell
        • Axon
        • Myelin Sheath - protect axon, speed up impulse
        • Shwann cell
        • Node of Ranvier - speed up transmission
        • Cell body
        • Terminal buttons - send impulse to next neuron
      • Stimulus
        • Receptor - sensory neurons send message to CNS
          • CNS - relay neurons transmit message across CNS, making sense of message
            • Effectors - motor neurons send message to effectors
              • Response
      • Synaptic transmission
        • Neurons communicate within neural networks
        • Neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory
          • If Excitatory
            • The post synaptic neuron is more likely to fire
              • As the neurotransmitter causes an electrical change in the membrane of the cell
                • Resulting in an EPSP (Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential) - making post synaptic cell more likely to fire
          • If Inhibitory
            • The post synaptic neuron is less likely to fire
              • As the inhibitory neurotransmitter causes IPSP (Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential) - making post synaptic cell less likely to fire
          • Nerve cells can receive both EPSP and IPSP simultaneously
        • Stimulus causes action potential in neuron
          • Neuron releases neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles
            • Neurotransmitters travel across synapse and are received by receptors
              • Neurotransmitter has either excitatory or inhibitory effect on next neuron

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