Autocracy and Opposition under Nicholas II AQA Specific

View mindmap
  • Autocracy and Opposition
    • Autocracy
      • Tsar had absolute power over Empire, believed to be appointed by God
      • Tsar could appointed & sack ministers and make decisions without consulting anyone
      • wasn't able, forceful, or imaginative. Avoided conflict and making big decisions
      • Handled officials poorly, felt threatened by able minded ministers such as Count Witte (sacked 1906) & Peter Stolypin (murdered 1911 before he got round to it)
        • Had 1:1 meetings with ministers which caused chaos as it encouraged rivalry and departments refused to work together
        • Appointed family and friends to important positions, often incompetent and corrupt
    • Control
      • Regime strong in many ways
        • Resistance limited for a time
          • Police had a special force with 10,000 officers who focused on political opponents
            • Tsar had secret police called OKHRANA
          • Tsar had loyal & terrifying Cossack army regiment
      • Peasants were controlled at local level by the mir
        • Mir could be overruled by Land Captains
      • Zemstva helped control Russia
      • In some areas Russia was a police state controlled by locals governors
        • Laws allowed LGs to: order police to arrest suspects of resistance, ban people from serving in Zemstva, make suspects pay fines and introduce censorship
    • Opposition
      • Three main groups: Duma, Social Revolutionaries, Social Democratic Party
        • Duma: many middle-class people wanted greater democracy. Called Liberals or Cadets
        • SRs: remove Tsar and government, give all land to peasants, killed 7 government officials & assassinated members of Okhrana, believed in violent struggle.
        • SDP: smaller, more disciplined, followed ideas of Karl Marx, split in 1903 into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
          • Bolsheviks: wanted Revolution
          • Mensheviks: didn't think Russia was ready for Revolution
    • Karl Marx/ Marxist
      • German writer and political thinker
      • Believed history was dominated by class struggle
      • First change would be middle classes taking control from monarchy and aristocracy
        • Then Revolution where workers (the proletariat) would overthrow middle class
          • For a short while the Communist Party would rule on behalf of people but as selfish desires disappeared there wouldn't be need for government
            • All would live in a peaceful, Communist society


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia 1905-1941 resources »