Attachment Mindmap

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  • Created on: 05-04-19 09:44
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  • Attachment
    • Caregiver-infant Interactions
      • Newborn babies have 'alert phases'. Feldman & Eidleman (2007)
        • Difficult to know what is happening when observing infants. Gratier (2003)
        • Well-controlled procedures are used in research.
        • Observations don't tell us the purpose of synchrony & reciprocity.
        • Mother-infant interactions research is socially sensitive.
        • Research has potential value to society. Crotwell et al. (2013)
      • Interactional synchrony = mirroring.
      • Interactional synchrony at 2 weeks old. Meltzof & Moore (1977)
      • High synchrony = higher quality attachment. Isabella et al. (1989)
      • Reciprocity: one person responds to the other. Brazleton et al. (1975)
      • Babies are active so don't take a 'passive role'.
    • The Role of the Father
      • Primary  attachment usually with mothers but sometimes with both. Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
        • Research fails to provide a clear answer about fathers & primary attachments.
        • Research has important economic implications.
      • 75% of infants eventually form secondary attachments with father.
        • Researchers are interested in different questions.
      • Attachment with mother most related to teen attachments. Grossmann (2002)
        • Evidence undermines the idea of fathers having distinct roles. McCallum & Golombok (2004)
      • Father's play is more important.
        • Social biases prevent objective observation.
      • Fathers can be primary caregivers. Field (1978)
      • Level of response is most important.
    • Schaffer's Stages of Attachment
      • 1) Asocial stage (0-2 months)       2) Indiscriminate attachment (2-7 months) 3) Specific attachment (7+ months) 4) Multiple attachments (10+ months)
        • Faulty method of assessing multiple attachment. Bowlby (1969)
        • Flawed methods when studying the asocial year.
        • Evidence on the timing of multiple attachments is conflicting. Ijzendoorn (1993)
      • 60 working-class babies from Glasgow measured for separation & stranger anxiety by interviewing mothers. 50% showed separation anxiety, usually with mother. Attachment tended to be to the caregiver who was most interactive to infant signals. Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
        • Has external validity.
        • Longitudinal study (a year & 18 months).
    • Animal studies of attachment
      • 12 goose eggs randomly divided  in 2 groups. One hatched with mother and other hatched in a lab. Lab goose followed the researcher as that was the first thing they saw. There's a 'critical period' & if imprinting doesn't occur in that time then it's more difficult later on. Lorenz (1952)
        • Chicks that imprinted on yellow washing up gloves tried to mate with them as adults. Guiton (1966)
        • Chicks learned to mate with their own kind with experience. Guiton (1966)
      • 16 monkeys were found to seek comfort from a cloth-covered wire mother rather than the wire mother which provided food when they were frightened. In adulthood, they tended to be more aggressive & less sociable. They neglected & sometimes killed their own offspring. Harlow (1958)
        • Research helped social workers understand risk factors in child abuse & so intervene to prevent it. Howe (1998)
        • Severe criticism for ethics of Harlow's research.
        • Generalizing findings from animals to humans.
          • 12 goose eggs randomly divided  in 2 groups. One hatched with mother and other hatched in a lab. Lab goose followed the researcher as that was the first thing they saw. There's a 'critical period' & if imprinting doesn't occur in that time then it's more difficult later on. Lorenz (1952)
            • Chicks that imprinted on yellow washing up gloves tried to mate with them as adults. Guiton (1966)
            • Chicks learned to mate with their own kind with experience. Guiton (1966)
    • Learning Theory - Dollard & Miller (1950)
      • Cupboard love.
        • Animal studies provide evidence against food as the basis of attachment.
        • Human research shows feeding isn't an important factor. Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
      • Classical conditioning: food (UCS) leads to a feeling of pleasure (UCR). Baby learns that mother produces a sense of pleasure.
        • Elements of conditioning are involved in attachment.
          • Operant conditioning: crying leads to a response from the caregiver (e.g. feeding). this is negative reinforcement.
            • There's newer learning explanation based on social learning theory (SLT). Hay & Vespo (1988)
      • Operant conditioning: crying leads to a response from the caregiver (e.g. feeding). this is negative reinforcement.
        • There's newer learning explanation based on social learning theory (SLT). Hay & Vespo (1988)
      • As caregivers provide food, the primary drive of hunger becomes generalized to them. Sears et al. (1957)
        • Other factors linked with attachment are ignored.
    • Bowlby's Monotropic Theory of Attachment
      • Attachment is innate.
        • Role of attachment is overemphasized. Kagan (1982)
      • Monotropic = a primary attachment figure.
        • Evidence for monotropy is mixed. Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
        • Monotropy is socially sensitive because of implications for mothers' lifestyle. Burman (1994)
      • More time spent with mother figure is beneficial because of continuity law & accumulated separation law.
      • Babies are born with social releasers.
        • Evidence supports social releasers. Brazelton et al. (1975)
      • The first attachment forms an internal working model of relationships.
        • Evidence support for internal working model. Bailey et al. (2007)
    • Ainsworth's Strange Situation
      • Controlled observation in a lab to assess quality of British toddlers' attachment to caregiver. She found 60-75% had Secure Attachment, 20-25% had Insecure-avoidant Attachment & 3% had insecure-resistant Attachment.
        • There's predictive validity of attachment types. kokkinos (2007)
        • Has good inter-rater reliability. Bick et al. (2012)
        • Culturally bias. Takahashi (1990)
        • Temperament is a confounding variable. Kagan (1982)
        • There may be other attachment types. Main & Solomon (1986)
    • Cultural Variations
      • Meta-analysis of 32 studies found Secure Attachment was the most common classification in all countries but ranged from 50% in China & 75% in Britain. Suggests cultural differences in the distribution of insecure Attachment. Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988)
        • Large samples increase internal validity by reducing very unusual participants. (2000 babies)
        • Samples used don't represent cultures. Ijzendoorn & Sagi (2001)
        • Strange Situation method is biased towards American/British culture.
          • 76 12 month olds from various backgrounds were assessed. Results showed 50% had Secure Attachment & 36% had Insecure Attachment. Researchers suggested this was due to increasing numbers of mothers working long hours & using professional childcare.
        • Cross-cultural differences may reflect the effects of the mass media.
        • Temperament is a confounding variable. Kagan (1982)
      • 76 12 month olds from various backgrounds were assessed. Results showed 50% had Secure Attachment & 36% had Insecure Attachment. Researchers suggested this was due to increasing numbers of mothers working long hours & using professional childcare.
    • Bowlby's Maternal Deprivation Theory of Attachment
      • Continued emotional care from mother is essential.
      • Separation from mother may lead to maternal deprivation.
        • Sources of evidence are flawed. Goldfarb (1947)
        • Animal studies demonstrated maternal deprivation. Levy et al. (2003)
      • Separation refers to child not being physically in presence of primary attachment figure. Deprivation refers to child losing emotional care due to separation.
        • Bowlby didn't distinguish between deprivation & privation. Rutter (1981)
      • Critical period of 30 months.
        • Critical period is more of a sensitive period. Czech twins (1976)
      • Deprivation affects intellectual development. Goldfarb (1947)
      • Deprivation is linked to affectionless psychopathy.
      • 44 teenage thieves were interviewed for signs of affectionless psychopathy. 14 had it & 12 of these experienced prolonged separation from their mothers in first 2 years of life. Bowlby (1944)
        • Counter-evidence doesn't support findings. Lewis (1954)
    • Romanian Orphan Studies
      • Institutionalization leads to disinhibited attachment & damage to intellectual development.
        • Long-term effects of early experience aren''t clear.
      • Longitudinal study of 165 Romanian orphans who were adopted found failure to form an attachment before the age of 6 had long-lasting effects on intellectual development. Rutter et al. (2011)
        • Results from this have led to improvements in the way children are cared for in institutions. Langton (2006)
        • Fewer confounding variables than other research, so increased internal validity.
        • Issue with generalizability in Romanian studies.
      • 95 orphans were assessed using the Strange Situation. Only 19% of orphans were Securely Attached & 65% were classified with disorganized attachment. Zeanah et al. (2005)
        • Children weren't randomly assigned to conditions.
    • Influence of Early Attachment on Later Relationships
      • First attachment is a template for future relationships.
        • Evidence shows very little relationship between quality of infant & adolescent attachment. Zimmerman (2000)
        • Attachment's influence on future relationships is exaggerated. Clarke & Clarke (1998)
      • Good experience of attachment = good relationship expectations. (vice versa)
        • Correlation doesn't necessarily mean causation.
      • Secure infants form better friendships & are less likely to bully. Kerns (1994) & Myron-Wilson & Smith (1998)
      • Internal working model affects parenting style.
        • There's a theoretical problem with research elated to internal working models. (they are unconscious but participants give conscious responses to researchers)
      • 620 replies to 'love quiz' were analyzed. Results showed 56% of  respondents identified as Securely Attached, with 25% Insecure-avoidant & 19 Insecure-resistant. Their attachment type was reflected in their romantic relationships.
        • Validity issues. (e.g. interviews or questionnaires)

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