ADDICTION MINDMAP

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  • Addiction
    • Nicotine
      • Explanations
        • Regulation model- tolerance increases- permanent damage to brain
          • Application to therapy
          • Comorbidity- SZ, addiction, alcoholism
        • Desensitisation- ACh receptor sites- stimulates dopamine
          • McEvoy (1995)- SZ p's smoked more when taking Haloperidol (dopamine blocker).
          • Brain scans- Ray et al (2008)
          • More complex than just dopamine- reductionist
      • Learning theory
        • Rose& Corrigall (1977)- cigarettes without nicotine
          • Act of smoking
          • Conditioning
            • Operant conditioning
              • Positive- rewards- dopamine release
              • Negative- avoid withdrawal
            • Classical condiitoning
              • Cues- (secondary reinforcers)
            • Social views on smoking have effect.
            • animal studies
            • individual differences and method issues
      • Drug therapy
        • Aversion- unpleasant consequence
          • Aversion therapy-association with stimuli
            • Gambling
              • learning theory
                • reinforcement
                  • Dickerson (1979)- observed gamblers
                    • Real lifesetting, generalizable and reliable
                • Individual difference
              • Cognitive theory
                • Expectancy
                • Bias
                  • Skill, personal traits, selective recall, faulty perception
                • Self efficacy- belief of ability
              • Grant and Kim (2006)Naltrexone- block dopamine
              • CBT- replace cognitive distortions, tools to avoid triggers
                • Specific skills, social skills, cognitive restructuing
            • replace positive with negative feelings
              • Ethical??
                • Covert sensitisation
                  • replace positive with negative feelings
                    • Ethical??
                      • Covert sensitisation
                        • LT
                  • LT
            • Impossible to judge effectiveness
            • ST
        • Agonists- substitutes i.e. methodine-  herion
        • Antagonist- block receptor sites
      • Gum, patches
    • Gambling
      • learning theory
        • reinforcement
          • Dickerson (1979)- observed gamblers
            • Real lifesetting, generalizable and reliable
        • Individual difference
      • Cognitive theory
        • Expectancy
        • Bias
          • Skill, personal traits, selective recall, faulty perception
        • Self efficacy- belief of ability
      • Grant and Kim (2006)Naltrexone- block dopamine
      • CBT- replace cognitive distortions, tools to avoid triggers
        • Specific skills, social skills, cognitive restructuing
    • ToPB
      • Ajzen- understand gap between intention and behaviour
        • Personal attitudes, perception of loved ones, belief about ability to stop
          • Self efficacy
            • Social influence
              • Subjective norms, LOC
  • Explanations
    • Regulation model- tolerance increases- permanent damage to brain
      • Application to therapy
      • Comorbidity- SZ, addiction, alcoholism
    • Desensitisation- ACh receptor sites- stimulates dopamine
      • McEvoy (1995)- SZ p's smoked more when taking Haloperidol (dopamine blocker).
      • Brain scans- Ray et al (2008)
      • More complex than just dopamine- reductionist

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