Attachment Mindmap

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  • Care-giver Interaction in Humans
    • Commun ication
      • Interactional Synchrony - infant moves in time to carers voice
        • Isabella et al. 1989
          • infants with secure attachments demonstrated interactional synchrony during the first year of life
      • Reciprocity - both carer and infant can produce responses from each other
      • Mimicking - infants imitate the facial expressions of carer
        • Melzoff + Moor 1977
          • infants 2-3 weeks old displayed a tendency to mimic
          • Research suggests mimicry is an innate ability
            • infants 2-3 weeks old displayed a tendency to mimic
      • Bodily Contact - physical interactions help to form the attachment bond early
        • Klaus + Kennel 1976
          • mothers who display greater physical contact were found to cuddle babies more and make greater eye contact
          • physical contact leads to an attachment bond that is closer and stronger
          • Compared mothers who displayed extended physical contact with their babies with mothers who only contacted with their infants during breastfeeding in the three days afteer birth
      • Caregiverese - modified vocal language used to speak to an infant
        • Papousek et al. 1991
          • found that the use of caregiverese was cross-cultural suggesting it is an innate device
    • Role of the Father
      • Attachment with mother most related to teen attachments
        • Grossmann (2002)
          • Longitudinal study - looking at parents' behaviour and its relationship to the quality of children's attachments into their teens
          • Findings: quality of attachment with the father was less important in the attachment type of the teenagers than quality of attachment with the mother
          • Conclusion: fathers may be less important in long term emotional development
      • Father's play is more important - play rather than nurture
      • 75% eventually form secondary attachments with father by age of 18 months
        • Schaffer/Emerson 1964
          • 3% of cases the father was the primary attachment
      • Fathers can be primary caregiver
        • Field 1978
          • Filmed 4 month old babies
          • Findings: primary caregiver fathers, like mothers, spent more time smiling, imitating and holding infants than secondary caregiver fathers
      • Level of response is important - the key to attachment relationship is the level of responsiveness not the gender of the parent
      • Primary attachment usually with mothers but sometimes both
        • Schaffer/Emerson 1964
          • 3% of cases the father was the primary attachment
    • Stages of Attachment
      • 3 - Specific Attachment | 7 months
        • Show stranger and separation anxiety from a specific adult. Child has formed a specific attachment called the primary attachment figure.
      • 4 - Multiple Attachments
        • After a month of having a specific attachment, the child forms secondary attachments
      • 2 - Indiscriminate Attachment | 2-7 months
        • Recognise and prefer familiar adults. Accept conform from any adult. Do not show separation or stranger anxiety.
      • 1 - Asocial Stage | birth -2 months
        • Similar response to all objects (animate or inanimate). At the end of thid stage, the child show preference for being with people.
      • Schaffer + Emerson 1964
        • 60 babies Glasgow W/C. Visited every month for a year then again at 18 months. Investigated: formation of early attachments, age at which they developed, emotional intensity and to whom they were directed
        • Between 25 and 32 weeks 50% of babies showed signs of seperation anxiety towards a particular adult. Attachment tended to be towards the caregiver who was the most interactive. By 40 weeks, 80% of babies had a sepcific attachment and 30% displayed multiple attachments


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