Memory Mindmap

  • Created by: ChazCL
  • Created on: 06-03-19 10:29
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  • AQA Psychology Memory
    • Multi-Store Model
      • Introduced in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin
      • Cognitive Explanation of Memory
      • Based on concepts of encoding, storage and retrieval.
      • How It Works
        • Stimuli recorded from the sensory register.
          • Information deemed relevant is stored in the STM.
            • Most information is lost at this stage after 15 to 30 seconds, unless it is rehearsed.
            • If information is maintained in the rehearsal loop long enough, it can form into a LTM.
              • Long-term memory can store information for a very long time. It advises the STM on what to pay attention to and what is worth rehearsing.
                • There is also some research that suggests that the LTM and the STM work together for retrieval.
          • Most information is immediately lost through forgetting.
      • AO2 Analysis
        • Neuroimaging has supported the distinction between a separate STM and LTM. Talmi et al. (2005).
        • Evidence for STM include Miller, (1956), Peterson and Peterson (1959), and Baddeley (1966).
        • Peterson and Peterson also show evidence for rehearsal, and Baddeley (1966) shows evidence for LTM.
      • AO3 Evaluation
        • Strength: Studies on coding, capacity and duration in STM and LTM have shown research evidence for separate stores.
        • Strength: Case studies of stroke patients have supported the existence of separate stores depending on where the damage occured.
        • Limitation: Recent research using scanning techniques shows us the idea that the idea of three stores is too simple. Also, retaining information in the LTM is not just done by rehearsing.
    • The Sensory Register
      • Coding in the SR is done by stimuli detected by the nervous system, through sensory receptors. There are a few ways this is done.
        • Echoic (Sound) Iconic  (Vision) Gustatory (Taste) Olfactory (Smell)  Haptic (Touch)
        • Capacity of the SR is thought to be large. However, it is difficult to confirm this without highly artificial and controlled experiments.
        • Duration of the sensory register is very short with quick decay. Most information is lost as the brain needs to respond to live stimulation constantly.
      • Studies on the SR include Crowder (1993), Sperling (1960), and Triesman (1964).
    • Short-Term Memory
      • Duration lasts, on average, between 15 to 30 seconds.
      • Coding occurs visually, acoustically and semantically.
      • Capacity is usually from between five to nine items. However, chunking is used to increase capacity.
      • Studies on the STM include Baddeley (1966), Miller (1956), Jacobs (1887), and Peterson and Peterson (1959).
        • Peterson and Peterson (1959) found that STM duration declined rapidly beyond 18 seconds.
        • Baddeley discovered that STM encoding was mainly acoustic.
        • Miller's main discovery on capacity in STM was that the general rule of thumb for capacity was 'the magical number seven, plus or minus two', in terms of STM capacity.
    • Long-Term Memory
      • Episodic Memory: This type of LTM is responsible for the recalling of events (episodes) in our lives. These memories are complex as they are time stamped by the brain and require a conscious effort to recall.
      • Semantic LTM: This store contains our knowledge of the world in the form of facts, dates, names, addresses, times, etc. These memories are not time stamped.
      • Procedural memory: This is our memory for how we move to perform certain tasks, or our 'uscle memory'. These memories are very difficult to forget, and examples can include remembering how to tie shoes, ride a bike, swim, drive a car, etc.


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