1. Dimensions of sustainable development

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  • Aspects of sustainable development
    • Economic and legal
      • Managing resources and controlling exploitation is largely the responsibility of governmentand policy makers.
        • 1. Fees and taxes for discharges of pollutants and for using environmental resources.
          • 2. Grants for environmentally protective or replenishing projects.
            • 3. The creation of deposit markets (measuring performance).
              • 4. The creation of  a market.
                • 5. Incentives to the upholding of the law, and fines for disobeying.
        • Environmental accounting: assessing how much regenerationof destroyed resources will costs. Adopting measures liek this more widely would soon result in a true 'green' measure of GDP.
    • Moral
      • - an ethical imperative. - 'Act so that your actions are compatible with the permanence of genuine human life.' (Jonas 1984).
        • Refers to the future for all humankind, and the conditions of their future. Offers a sense of RESPONSIBILITY that is unconditionally binding.
    • Ecological
      • The conservation of nature and landscapes.
        • Began with colonialists in Africa, and Roosevelt's presidency in America.
        • Protection provided by UNESCO: biosphere reserves, national parks, nature reserves etc.
        • This issue includes air pollution: complicated as it cannot be contained and covers regions which were not players in it's production, but cannot be protected through physical boundaries and law.
    • Social
      • 'Even human relationships with nature have their social dimension, since all the different kinds of activity oriented towards the environment are mediated  via the socio-cultural models in a place in a given society.
      • 'A sure consequence of a lack of respect for other people is a similar lack of respect for the environment'
        • --> striving to occupy the most favourable position in the social hierarchy births competativeness, and material possession is key in this (Williams and Millington 2004).
          • 'People's actions have become subordinated to the pursuit of profit' (Sztumski 2000).
    • Technical
      • Technology may be largely to blame for the destruction of the environment, but it is within technology that the solutions may lie,
        • 'While the negative aspect will always be with us, it is possible for the damage done to the environment to be minimised - and this is a task for the technical sciences, most notably the environmental engineering now developing rapidly' (Hardin and Tibbs).
          • Williams and Millington 2004: weaker sustainability theorists optimistic view of technology and it's role in increasing supply and managing damage.
        • Cleaner production through use of renewable resources and a  decreased production of disposable products.
          • Story of Stuff
      • But not everything can be solved through this. Water for example is irreplacable.How will we cope when this finite resources runs out? Management is key! LATER LINK TO WATER MANAGEMENT: PRIVATISATION VS BASIC NEED.
      • Do we have the political will to introduce the necessary changes?
        • Political
          • Appropriate law on environmental protection may be of assistance to actions in all the different sustainable-development dimensions
            • Curitiba
    • Political
      • Appropriate law on environmental protection may be of assistance to actions in all the different sustainable-development dimensions
        • Curitiba
    • Sustainable development attempts to integrate different spheres if humanity. Humans have a responsibility to nature (Strong sutainability).
      • It's difficult to implement a sustainable development program which takes in to account all the dimensions.
        • It won't be a quick fix - 'It needs to be recalled that the essence of a sustainable development strategy lies not so much in what rapid solutions can be found for existing problems as in the long term prospects and the long term impacts of actions taken.'
      • Local input is so key: implementing programs created by outsiders will inevitably be met with resistance from locals. It must also be supported by the local elite, for they have influence.
  • 4. The creation of  a market.
    • 5. Incentives to the upholding of the law, and fines for disobeying.

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