My links for the entire university course.

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  • Created by: mooseman
  • Created on: 27-06-20 15:13
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  • Environmental science
    • Air pollution
      • Hazardous air pollution molecules
        • Lead
        • Mecurary
        • Ozone (ground level)
        • are those pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects. EPA is required to control 187 hazardous air pollutants
      • Air pollution killing 1.2 million people/ year
      • CFC (Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
        • Learn equation for how CFC reacts with Ozone
        • Effect = damages ozone, and
          • Increases radioactivity and likelihood of cancer as more radiation is coming down to earth
    • Mining
      • Underground mining = dangerous, caves in and fires
      • Uses lots of water - water contamination = problem
      • Horizontial mining causes many problems:
        • Needs a vast area
        • Causes lots of spoil and land never recovers
        • Water contamination
    • Earth processes
      • The five sphere
        • Atmosphere
          • Weather
            • Climate
              • Orbit/ tilt
                • Season
                • Unqual heating
                  • Convection
                    • Cells
                    • Atmospheric circulation
                      • Currents
              • Spin
                • Coriolis effect
                  • Atmospheric circulation
                    • Currents
              • Oceans
                • influences ENSO (El Nero Southern Oscolation)
                  • See this video
                  • La Nero = make Australia warmer as Walker Circulation stronger than natural; pushing warm water from C. America to Australia
                  • Neutral = Walker circulation pushes warm water to Austral
                  • El Nero = warm water pushed to C. America as Walker Circulation blowing from Australia to Central America
        • Biosphere
          • All organims on planet - up to 10km above land and to 8km below land
        • Lithosphere
          • Layers =
        • Hydosphere
          • Water
        • Cryosphere
          • Ice sphere
      • Biogeochemical cycles
        • Nitrogen cycle
          • More info
        • Hydrological cycle
          • More info
        • Carbon cycle
          • More info
        • Phosphorous cycle
          • More info
    • Energy
      • Coal
        • ***** open mines = bad for environment
        • Underground mining = dangerous, risk of caves in and continuous fires
        • Carbon capture + sequestration?
          • China = 12 factories  have been built to try this out - try rather than are doing
        • China added Capacity rose by 42.9GW in 18 months, far outpacing global efforts to cut use of fossil fuel, in coal powered plant
      • Natural gas
        • Coal breaks down producing methane = extracted
        • Definition "flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel"
        • Natural gras uses simpler, purier components
          • Therefore is cleaner
          • Natural gas is a fossil fuel. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide (CO2) when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal  plant
          • Need lots of infrastructure
        • 1/4 of global energy comes from natural gas
      • Nuclear
        • Fission
          • Heat is produced  because of radioactive decay > drive water surrounding rods > causing steam to be produced > powers terbins > producing electricity
          • Fuel = Uranium 235, produces
            • B144
            • R90
        • Radioactive decay
      • Oil
        • Horizon oil spill
          • 8 problems that caused it
            • Dodgy cement - borehold did not create seal as it should have
          • 4,900,000 liters of oil leaked in July
          • Happened on 20 April 2010
        • Fracking is controversial
        • Diseal is bad for environment
          • UK government tried in the 1980's to 1990's subsidy diesel and say it was better for the environment. The government know it was worst for the environment, but they lied.
            • See the book "The invisable Killer" by Gary Fuller
      • Renwables
        • Germany has 2 targets:
          • "1) By 2050 renewable energies should make up 60 percent of the gross final consumption of energy, and 80 percent of the gross electricity consumption."
          • "2) The second pillar of the Energiewende, following the expansion of renewable energy supplies, is a significant increase in energy efficiency"
          • "The goal is a 20 percent reduction primary energy consumption by 2020, and a 50 percent reduction by 2050, compared to 2008"
    • Biomes and habitats
      • 3 UK grassland types
        • Calcareous
          • Found on shallow, lime rich soil
        • Neutral
          • Found on clay and loam soil
        • Acidic
          • Found on sand, gravel and siliceous rock
      • Mountains
      • Types of forest:
        • Borel forest
          • Consist of conifer., pines and spurce in low-nutrient rich soil
          • Scandinavia borel forest suffered from acid rain in 1970-1980's due to UK coal burning
        • Tropical forest
          • Amazon lost 8,000HA of forest per day in 2018
        • Temperate forest
          • Abscission
          • In UK forest cover just 13% of total land area, in EU on average = 35%
      • Tundra
      • Aquatic habitats
        • Rivers = lotic environments
        • Ponds and lakes =  lentic environments
        • Corel reefs
        • Eustraises = saltmarshes
        • Abyss (ocean)
        • Palgenic (ocean)
      • Remember definition and implications fo teleconnections
        • Definition: "Teleconnections are spatial patterns in the atmosphere that link weather and climate anomalies over large distances across the globe"
      • Svananna
      • Desert
      • Chaparreal
    • Exotoxincology
      • Fracking
        • Controvsial - involves using lots of different chemicals to allow gas to come up to the surface - producing contaminated water. This water could infect many water courses
          • More info
          • More info
      • Mining heavy metals e.g. borium; catatgens; lead and mecurary leading to contaminated water course, causing exotoxincology
      • Biomagnification
    • Sustianability
      • Term "sustainability" first introduced in 1972
      • 1987: Brundtland Report. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), which had been set up in 1983, published a report entitled Our common future .
        • It called for a strategy that united development and the environment – described by the now-common term «sustainable development»
      • 1992 = A21 meeting and 3 pillars of sustainability  implemented. the Pilllers were:  people, prospiary and planet
      • 2015 = 5 pillars of sustainability, these were:
        • People
        • Planet
        • Place
        • Prosperity
        • Partnership
      • Millennium development goals (2000-2015)
        • 8 of them
        • Developing countries only
      • Sustainable Development goals (2015-2030)
        • 17 of them
        • All countries

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