Antibodies in medicine

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  • Antibodies in medicine
    • Monoclonal antibodies
      • Produced from single group of genetically identical B cells- identical in structure
      • Very specific due to unique tertiary structure
      • Monoclonal antibodies can bind to anything
    • Cancer
      • 1) Different cells in body have different surface antigens
      • 2) Cancer cells have tumor markers not found on normal body cells
      • 3) MA can bind to tumor markers/attach anti cancer drugs
      • 4) When antibodies come into contact with cancer cells they combine to tumor markers
      • 6) Drug will only accumulate where there are cancer cells
      • 7) Less side effects- accumulate near specific cells
    • Pregnancy testing
      • Detect hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)- found in urine of pregnant women
      • 1) Application area contains antibodies for hCG bound to blue coloured bead
      • 2) When urine applied to application area, any hCG will bind to antibody on beads forming an antigen-antibody complex
      • 3) Urine moves up test *****, carrying any beads with it
      • 4) Test ***** contains immobilised hCG antibodies
      • 5) Test ***** turns blue if hCG present because immobilised antibody binds to hCG with blue beads attached
    • ELIZA testing for HIV
      • 1) HIV antigen bound to bottom of well in well plate
      • 2)Sample of patients blood plasma added to well. Any HIV specific antibodies will bind to HIV antigen at bottom of well. Well washed out to remove unbound antibodies
      • 3) Secondary antibody with specific enzyme added to well. Can bind to HIV specific antibody. Well washed out again to remove unbound secondary antibodies. No primary antibody= all of secondary antibody washed away
      • 4) Solution added to well. Contains substrate able to react with enzyme attached to secondary antibody and produce coloured product. If solution changes colour, indicates patient has HIV specific antibodies in blood and is infected with HIV.


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