Biology

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Pathogen
A microorganism that causes disease
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Direct Transmission
Passing a pathogen from host to new host, with no intermediary
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Indirect Transmission
Passing a pathogen from host to new host, via a vector
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Transmission
Passing a pathogen from an infected individual to an uninfected individual
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Vector
An organism that carries a pathogen from one host to another
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Callose
A large polysaccharide deposit that blocks old phloem sieve tubes
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Inflammation
Swelling and redness of tissue caused by infection
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Mucous Membrane
Specialised epithelial tissue that is covered by mucus
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Primary Defences
Prevent pathogens entering the body
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Antigen-Presenting Cells
A cell that isolates the antigen from a pathogen and places it on plasma membrane so that it can be recognised by other cells in the immune system
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Clonal Selection
Selection of a specific B or T cell that is specific to the antigen
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Cytokines
Hormone-like molecules used in cell signalling to stimulate the immune response
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Neutrophil
A type of white blood cell that engulfs foreign matter and traps it in a large vacuole which fuses with lysosomes to digest the foreign matter
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Oposins
roteins that bind to the antigen on a pathogen and then allow phagocytes to bind
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Antibodies
Specific proteins released by plasma cells that can attach to pathogenic antigens
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B Memory Cells
Cells that remain in the blood for a long time, providing long-term immunity
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Clonal Expansion
An increase in the number of cells by mitotic cell division
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Interleukins
Signalling molecules that are used to communicate between different white blood cells
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Plasma Cells
Derived from the B lymphocytes, these are cells that manufacture antibodies
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T Helper Cells
Cells that release signalling molecules to stimulate the immune response
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T Killer Cells
Cells that attack and destroy our own body cells that are infected by a pathogen
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T Memory Cells
Cells that remain in the blood for a long time, providing long-term immunity
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T Regulator Cells
Cells that are involved with inhibiting or ending the immune response
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Agglutinins
Antibodies that cause pathogens to stick together
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Anti-Toxins
Antibodies that render toxins harmless
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Primary Immune Response
The initial response caused by first infectiom
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Secondary Immune Response
A more rapid and vigorous response caused by a second or subsequent infection by the same pathogen
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Active Immunity
The immune system is activated and manufactures its own antibodies
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Artficial Immunity
Immunity that is achieved as a result of medical intervention
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Epidemic
A rapid spread of a disease through a high proportion of the population
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Natural Immunity
Immunity achieved through normal life processes
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Passive Immunity
Immunity achieved when antibodies ae passed to the individual through breast feeding or injection
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Vaccination
A way of stimulating an immune response so that immunity is achieved
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Antibiotic
A chemical whcih pevents the growth of microorganisms-Antibacterial or Antifungal
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Personalised Medicine
The development of designer medicines for individuals
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Synthetic Biology
The re-engineering of biology
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Passing a pathogen from host to new host, with no intermediary

Back

Direct Transmission

Card 3

Front

Passing a pathogen from host to new host, via a vector

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Passing a pathogen from an infected individual to an uninfected individual

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An organism that carries a pathogen from one host to another

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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