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Unit 1: Disease and Immunity
All infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms.

Interfaces with the environment
This is a surface that links the external environment with the internal environment of the body.

1. Skin ­ impenetrable layer. Microbes can only enter if the skin is broken.
2. Gas exchange…

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Lifestyle and Health
There are a number of diseases that result from a person's lifestyle.

Is a measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard.

1. The probability that the hazard will happen.
2. The consequences of the hazard happening.…

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Phagocytes ingest and destroy pathogens. Some phagocytes travel in the blood but can move out of blood
vessels into other tissues.




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Specific immunity
Once an individual has experienced a particular species of pathogen it will fight off future infections by the
same pathogen much more quickly. The individual is said to have immunity to that pathogen.

All foreign cells have antigens on their surface.
Antigens are:
a) Proteins.
b) Part of…

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c) Some stimulate B cells to divide.
d) Some kill infected body cells ­ they do this by releasing a protein that forms holes in the cell
membrane of the cells that have been infected.

Humoral response
Antibodies are transported in the blood and body fluids. Each type of B…

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Secondary response
1. Memory B cells divide into plasma cells (by mitosis) which secrete antibodies.
2. Memory T cells divide into the different types of T cells so they can destroy the cells that are

This response is QUICKER ­ greater concentration of antibodies = person does not usually…

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2. The two antigen binding sites make agglutination (clumping together of pathogens) easier for the antibodies
to achieve. This interlocking of antibody and antigen blocks the active region of the antigen, rendering it
3. Agglutination also makes the pathogens easier to track down by the phagocytes.
4. The antibody-antigen…

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2. Use an easily transportable and storable vaccine.
3. Use a vaccine with few side effects.
4. Have many trained staff to administer the vaccine.
5. Vaccinate all vulnerable individuals at the same time.

If for a certain time there are no individuals with the disease then transmission of the…

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6. Once the one is founded it is cloned to produce large amounts of required antibody.

1. To separate a chemical from a mixture.
2. Used in immunoassay ­ is a method for calculating the amount of substance in a mixture.
3. Cancer treatment ­ the antibodies are used…


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