Alexander III

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  • Alexander II
    • Character
      • Upbringing
        • Educated by humane, liberal tutors Zhukovsky and Merder
        • Well prepared by Nicholas I to be ruler
          • Involved in commitees
      • Personality
        • Gentle / Charming
        • Most intelligent and humane of the Romanovs
        • Less attracted to military than most Romanovs
        • Mood varied from enthusiasm to apathy
    • As Tsar
      • Role
        • Alternated between reform and reactionary tendencies
          • Reflected in his appointment of ministers
        • Historians debate on his importance in reforms
        • Increasingly gave no clear lead in government
        • Worried by assassination attempts
        • Upset by criticism even after reforms, and also by demands to extend them
      • Key Individuals
        • Grand Duke Constantine: convinced reformer / Minister of Navy
        • Duchess Pavlovna: helped to persuade the emancipation
    • Domestic Policy
      • Emancipation
        • Peasent discontent
      • Zemstva
        • Reduction of powers
      • Judicial reforms
      • Relaxation of Censorship
        • Increased censorship
      • Education reforms
        • Reduction of University autonomy
          • Growth od dissent
      • Military reforms
      • Financial reforms
    • Foreign Policy
      • 1856
        • Peace of Paris ended disasterous Crimean war
        • Black sea neutralised
      • 1863
        • Polish revolt eventually crushed
        • Poland renamed Vistula province
        • 100000 exiled to Siberia
      • 1871
        • Black sea clauses of Paris treaty renounced
      • 1877
        • War with Turkey over atrocities in Balkans
          • Russian success
        • Forward policy influenced by Panslav public pressure
      • 1878
        • March: Treaty of San Stefano, large gains for bulgaria
        • June: Congress of Berlin, previous gans largely lost, political humiliation
        • Expansion
          • After failure in Europe headed east
    • Overall
      • Period of great reforms but failed to establish firm base for modernised autocracy
      • Other reformscreated elements potentially critical of autocracy
      • Emancipation"too little, too late"? failed in tackling major agarian problems
      • Missed oportunities over a) emancipation b) the establishment of some form of national representative assembly


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