AC1.1 Compare criminal behaviour and deviance

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  • Created by: ellie
  • Created on: 09-03-20 13:44
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  • AC 1.1 Compare Criminal Behaviour and Deviance
    • Social Definition
      • A deviant behaviour that violates prevailing norms( cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally)
        • These crimes have consequences which create harm to a whole community or individual and groups within these communities
          • Examples: smoking, marijuana, speeding
      • Examples of why its difficult to use the social definition of crime
        • Adultly (cheating) is a crime punishable by death in some countries and not a crime in others, some countries have laws against it but do not prosecute adulterers
          • Cultures where it is legal: UK, EUROPE
          • Cultures where it is illegal: Saudia Arabia, South Korea
          • Why is the law different?- Religion/beliefs
        • Honour Crimes, the murder/torture of a family member who has brought shame on the family
          • Cultures where it is legal: Africa, North Korea, Pakistan
          • Cultures where it is illegal: UK, Europe, US
          • Why is the law different?-Traditions, norms, peoples own interpretations of religion
        • Homosexuality, the sexual attraction to a member of the same sex
          • Cultures where it is legal- UK, Europe, China, certain states in US
          • Cultures where it is illegal- Russia if done openly, Sudan
          • Why is the law different- social norms/beliefs
    • Legal Definition
      • An action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law
        • Laws can be applied retrospectively, a law can not be made unless the act has been done before
      • MENS REA- "Guilty Act"
        • Is commonly defined as a criminal act that was the result of voluntary bodily movement, this describes a physical activity that harms another person or damages property
      • Why is it difficult to define crime?
        • Social Definition
          • A deviant behaviour that violates prevailing norms( cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally)
            • These crimes have consequences which create harm to a whole community or individual and groups within these communities
              • Examples: smoking, marijuana, speeding
          • Examples of why its difficult to use the social definition of crime
            • Adultly (cheating) is a crime punishable by death in some countries and not a crime in others, some countries have laws against it but do not prosecute adulterers
              • Cultures where it is legal: UK, EUROPE
              • Cultures where it is illegal: Saudia Arabia, South Korea
              • Why is the law different?- Religion/beliefs
            • Honour Crimes, the murder/torture of a family member who has brought shame on the family
              • Cultures where it is legal: Africa, North Korea, Pakistan
              • Cultures where it is illegal: UK, Europe, US
              • Why is the law different?-Traditions, norms, peoples own interpretations of religion
            • Homosexuality, the sexual attraction to a member of the same sex
              • Cultures where it is legal- UK, Europe, China, certain states in US
              • Cultures where it is illegal- Russia if done openly, Sudan
              • Why is the law different- social norms/beliefs
        • Due to the fact that it varies so greatly, it is not entirely about law-breaking, but also includes a number of other factors such as the solidarity within society
          • Criminal: violation of government criminal laws, always punishable criminal offences, criminal laws are always well documented examples include: murder, robbery
          • Deviance: violation of social norms and standards, can be criminal or not criminal, deviant rules are not always documented examples: prostitution, marriage underage-not punishable by law
    • Formal Sanctions against criminals
      • Non-court sanctions
        • Cautions
          • Not a criminal conviction but a 'charge' e.g. ASBO
        • Conditional cautions
          • Have  to agree to a certain treatment by police
        • Penalty notices
          • Financial penalties (in court)
      • Court Sanctions
        • Custodial sentences
          • Where you are immediately sentenced to prison, fixed or life suspended
        • Community sentences
          • Punishments such as litter picking, drug testing or curfews
        • Fines and discharge
          • Discharges- can be conditional (free to go on the basis you meet conditions) or absolute (the shock of being arrested is enough)
          • Fines- financial penalties (out of court)
    • Variety of criminal acts
      • Fatal offences
        • Murder, genocide, manslaughter
      • non fatal offences
        • GBH,ABH, domestic abuse
      • offences against property
        • Tresspassing,arson, theft, vandalism
      • Sexual offences
        • ****, sexual assault, up skirting, revenge ****, prostituion
      • Public order offences
        • Drunk and disorderly, insulting a police officer, antisocial behaviour disorder
      • Drug offences
        • Intended to sell and supply, possession of drugs
    • Deviance
      • Norms, moral codes and values
        • are 'unwritten' rules of society, they tell you what is and isn't acceptable behaviour, debit behaviour is when a behaviour goes against social norms
          • Morals can also be called moores
      • Informal and formal sanctions against deviance
        • Informal
          • Frowning upon behaviour
          • Name calling
          • Ignoring behaviour
        • Formal
          • fines
          • Imprisonment
      • Forms of deviance
        • Societal deviance
          • An act which most of society would agree is not classed as paper of normal behaviour, examples: nude sunbathing, facial piercings, drugs
        • Concealed deviance
          • An act which no one sees, something which a person can keep hidden away, it is still considered not part of societies norms examples, cross dressing, sexual fantasies
        • Situational deviance
          • An act that is only considered deviance in the culture you are in at the time and my not be considered deviant by society, examples: sexuality, appearances/clothing
        • Collective or public deviance
          • Deviance shared by a group of people which does not conform to that which is considered social norms, however follow a set of norms they have created within their own subculture, examples: a goth group in sixth form
      • Legal rule breaking
        • An 18 year old arriving to school drunk
      • Illegal rule breaking
        • An underage student arriving to school drunk

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