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  • AC4.1 criminology and social policy
    • individualistic theories
      • pyschoanalysis and treatment for criminal behaviour is linked to this pyschodynamic theory
        • pyschoanalysis founded by freud is where the patient talks through their thoughts
          • a variety of methods are used in attempt to access unconscious, repressed thoughts that may have caused criminal behavior
            • this treatment assumes that people have repressed trauma from previous life expirences and this led to crime.
        • this is no longer a popular way of treating offenders, it's time consuming and doesn't provide quick solutions.
          • the nature of psychoanalysis creates a power imbalance between the therapist and client which could raise ethical issues.
            • a study in 2010 claimed it worked as well as other forms of pyschotherapy.
              • studies do not recommend using this approach with criminals
      • behaviour modification links to social learning theories
        • focuses on techniques to extinguish undesirable behaviors and promote desirable ones.
          • the idea is that behaviour is rewarded, is reinforced and those that are punished are weakened.
            • the token economy system is an aspect of behavior modification, this is where a token is given for a appropriate action and later exchanged for a treat.
        • Fo and O'Donnell devised a 'buddy system' where adult volunteers were assigned to a young offender to provide a positive reinforcement for good behavior
          • this appeared work with serious offenders but the effect was mixed on those who has committed less serious crime.
            • studies on token economies show that they can be effective within an institution but the effects do not last beyond
      • other policies or treatments
        • social skills training aims to improve skills in order to avoid offending and become more socially competent
          • however sometimes people revert back to previous behaviors
          • anger management aims to help offenders who cannot control their anger and end up expressing it in anti social ways
            • anger management programmes use cognitive behavioural therapy to help offenders deal more effectively with their feelings
    • biological theories
      • neurochemicals (influencing the brain's chemistry by diet)
        • this study shows how it may be able to positively impact on aggressive behavior through a change in diet.
          • Verkkunen et al found that violent offenders had low serotonin levels which can be treated by diet with foods such as fresh salmon.
            • Schoenthaler found reducing sugar reduced anti social behavior by 48% in prisons, all prisons have balance on good health diets.
      • the study of eugenics claimed genes can be linked to behavior
        • part of the reasoning behind the Nazi sterilization programme was to prevent criminals from giving birth to criminal offspring
          • research by Osborn and West in the 70s supports this as they found 40% of boys whose dads had criminal records also offended
            • this compares to 12% of boys who had offended whose dads did not have a criminal background
    • sociological theories
      • left realism
        • informed the polocies on crime made by the new labour of tony blair from 1997-2007. tony blairs approach aimed to be tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime.
          • this was a response to the media and public view that crime and anti social behaviour was getting out of hand in the UK.
            • tough on crime policies have been introduced by successive parties.
              • the three strikes and your out idea, in england and wales refers to if someone is caught 3 times trafficking class a drugs, they will be given a 7 year sentence.
      • right realism
        • pioneered by NYPD, this policy demands that police takes action on all crime.
          • right realists associate with republican and conservative governments so favor 0 tolerance.
            • Ray Mallon said that he would quit if he did not reduce crime by 20% in 18 months using 0 tolerance methods.
            • it claims that as soon as any minor signs of anti social bhaviour or disorder are spotted, they must be checked to prevent the situation deteriorating. (broken window theory)
        • in New York since 1993 major crime fell by 39% and murder by 49%, the UK has seen similar results. Mallon did achieve his goal.
    • penal populism
      • this is where social policies on crime result as a response of government to a public outcry.
      • professor David Wilson pointed out how public outcry, after the brutal murder of toddler Jamie Bulger in 1993, led to calls that the system was being too soft on criminals.
      • this was reflected in media headlines of the time, consequently it lead to more people being imprisoned.
      • the UK now has proportionately, the highest prison population in Europe. the media add the the public's outcry to be tough on crime.


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