World City Key Terms

Agglomeration
A city which has grown so large that it merges with others to for, a region. E.g. Tokyo, whose region now includes Yokohama
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Brownfield site
Land which has been previously been built upon and is ready for re-urbanisation
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Central Business District (CBD)
The middle of the city where shops and businesses are found
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Comparison goods
Goods that are bought less than everyday convenience goods. E.g. clothes, electrical and household goods
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Conurbation
A very large urban area, formed by the merging together of two or more cities, engulfing smaller towns and cities
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Convenience goods
Goods which are cheap and bought frequently e.g. newspapers
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Core and periphery
A theory that shows how different economic development between regions leads to a prosperous 'core' region and a poorer 'periphery'.
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Counter Urbanisation
This occurs when increasing numbers of people move out of urban areas into the rural-urban fringe or further away to rural villages. The rise of new communication technologies, especially electronic systems may have encouraged this movement
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Decentralisation
Movement of people and functions (like offices or supermarkets) from the centre to the edge.
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Deindustrialisation
A decline in the importance of manufacturing in the industrial economy of a country
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Depopulation
A substantial reduction in the population of an area
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Deprivation
The degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of services and amenities. Poverty, lack of housing, unemployment, poor health and lack of opportunity
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Donut City
A term used in the USA to describe cities where de-population of the inner core and movement of businesses away from the city centre has left behind a 'hole' or inactive city centre.
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Economic Sustainability
Urban economic sustainability allows the individuals and communities who live in cities to have access to a job and reliable income
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Edge city
A term used in the USA to describe suburban growth away from major cities which take on the same functions of cities as more and more people and businesses move out.
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Filtering
As the city centre becomes rundown, those who can afford it move out of the city and less well-off people replace them.
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Flagship Scheme
A high profile development designed to encourage investment in an area and to be a model for further developments. E.g. Canary Wharf
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"Gated" community
A common feature of US cities- enclaves of very high income groups seeking to isolate themselves
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Gentrification
This is when the status of an inner city area, which has been neglected becomes upgraded and fashionable as wealthier people move back in. They have greater resources and improve and increase the areas status again.
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Globalisation
A set of processes leading to the integration of economic, cultural, political and social systems across geographical boundaries.
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Green belt
The area of open space or low density urban land uses around a town or city in which any new developments of an urban area are strictly controlled or forbidden by planners and local authorities
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Greenfield site
Land which has never previously been built upon
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Housing Association
Independent non-profit making organisation for managing, building and renovating housing
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Hyperurbanisation
Where a city's growth greatly exceeds its ability to cope in terms of housing, employment or services
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Infilling
The use of open spaces within a conurbation to build new housing or services, often close to where a green belt restricts outwards growth.
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Informal Settlements
Settlements that are constructed in an ad hoc fashion with a lack of any discernible organisation or planning. They are constructed on land generally considered unsuitable for development such as hillsides.
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Infrastructure
The structures and services that allow places to function effectively. e.g. transport, water etc
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Integrated transport policy
A planned system where buses on different routes link with each other and trains to provide a door to door service that rivals car use
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Megacity
A city with more than 10 million inhabitants. e.g Tokyo, Mumbai, Sao Paulo
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Megalopolis
A US term for any city over 10 million people
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Metropolitan area
The administrative urban area of a city
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Millionaire city
A city of more than one million people
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Multiple Deprivation
Measures a range of problems that exacerbate the problems for inner city dwellers in HICs and peripheral dwellers in LICs. Including income, employment, poor skills, poor education, homelessness, overcrowding, crime
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Multiplier effect
The upward spiral of development so that one economic activity leads to the development of others
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Out-of-town shopping centres
Major retail outlets built away from city centres e.g. Metro centre, Bluewater, Trafford centre and Meadowhall
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Property led regeneration
Regeneration led by property developers and finances with little input from the government except the creation of opportunities or tax breaks.
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Regeneration
The process of urban or rural improvement which may be economic, social or environmental in nature.
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Retail led regeneration
Regeneration brought by improvements in retail space designed to attract shoppers
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Re-urbanisation
This means an increasing number of people moving back into the inner suburbs after having previously lived in the suburbs or rural areas.
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Rural- urban fringe
The areas of countryside around the built up area. Land uses include golf courses and water supply. This area is under great pressure from city growth, because of a desire to move out of town.
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Segregation
The separation of different functions or different groups of people within cities so that they are concentrated in areas to the exclusion of others
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Self-help schemes
The city authorities hope to improve living conditions by helping the residents to help themselves. They grant squatters legal title to their land; provide essential infrastructure such as mains , water, roads and electricity.
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Shanty town
An area of poor low cost housing often around a big city in developing countries. Often of not have full provision of services. For example Favelas in Brazil
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Site and service schemes
A method of encouraging housing improvement in poor areas of developing cities. The government provide the land and installs electricity and water. Local people can obtain a plot in the scheme for low rent and then build their own houses.
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Squatter settlements
This is the first area of self-help housing for many newcomers into cities in LICs; they are lower status than shanty towns
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Stakeholders
People who have a valid interest in a planning decision such as developers, shoppers, local authorities, water authority and environmentalists
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Suburbanisation
The increased movement of people, services and industries from the centre to the edges of cities
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Suburbanised villages
Villages that have grown as a result of people moving out of cities. The structure of the settlement and socio-economic characteristics are changed
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Threshold
Minimum number of people needed to make a service profitabl
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Total diversion rate
The amount of material in kg/household/year that is recycled and or composted instead of going to landfill
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Urban models
Represent attempts to summarise the distribution of land uses in urban areas
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Urban settlement
Can be distinguished from a rural settlement by: greater size, larger area, larger sphere of influence, more functions and wider range of services
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Urban sprawl
The spreading of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area
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Urban zone
Part of a city with similar land uses e.g. CBD, low value housing, industrial areas and inner city.
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Urbanisation
An increase in the proportion of a country's population living within urban areas. There are two causes of urbanisation: natural population growth and rural to urban migration
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World City
A city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture etc. These cities have great influence on the global scale and have worldwide commercial power. There are 3; New York, London and Tokyo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Land which has been previously been built upon and is ready for re-urbanisation

Back

Brownfield site

Card 3

Front

The middle of the city where shops and businesses are found

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Goods that are bought less than everyday convenience goods. E.g. clothes, electrical and household goods

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A very large urban area, formed by the merging together of two or more cities, engulfing smaller towns and cities

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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