Why did the Liberals Introduce Reforms to Help the Young, Old and Unemployed?

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What was the attitude of the Liberal Party in 1906 towards the poor? How was this different to previous governments?
Governments before the Liberal party thought of poor people in the same way as the overall view. However, the Liberal Party thought it was not always their fault that they were poor and the government had a job to help however they could.
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Name two key individuals that influenced the reforms.
1) David Lloyd George. 2) Winston Churchill.
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Describe the background of David Lloyd George.
David's father died so he and his poverty-stricken mother moved to live in a Welsh village. Here, they were helped out by his uncle. He became a solicitor and hated the way the English dominated Welsh life. He sympathised with ordinary people.
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Describe how Winston Churchill became a key individual in the Liberal Reforms.
Winston Churchill had been a leading conservative but in 1906 became a Liberal when they started the Welfare Reforms.
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What made Churchill and Lloyd George believe Welfare Reforms were right.
They both read the works of Seebohm Rowntree and other social reformers and felt that poverty needed to be tackled.
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How did Industrial Decline influence the reforms?
From 1870, Britains position as the worlds leading industrial power was being challenged. By 1900 USA and Germany had taken over Britain. Germany introduced Welfare Reforms and their rapid development seemed to be linked to this.
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What did Lloyd George think about Germanys reforms?
Lloyd George liked the welfare system in Germany so government help in Britain for the unemployed became widespread.
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What was the Boer War?
From 1899-1902 Britain was fighting to defend its territory in Southern Africa.
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How did the Boer War influence Welfare Reforms?
If the health of the nation was improved there would be healthy soldiers for the future. Half of the recruits were unfit for service because of ill health and potential recruits were fed so badly that they didn't grow properly.
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What happened as a result of soldiers not growing properly?
The minimum height had to be reduced in order for there to be a sufficient amount of soldiers to fight in the Boer War.
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How did Political Rivalry influnce the reforms?
The Liberals saw Welfare reforms as a way of undermining the Labour party, they were calling for pensions, education and unemployment benefits but they were only a small party - The Liberals hoped to keep it that way.
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How did the Rise of Socialism influence the reforms?
Lloyd George didn't want socialism so he made it so that if socialism came to the UK, workers wouldn't gain from it. If the working class was happier/healthier there would be less support for the Socialist movement.
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How did Social Reformers influence the reforms?
If the government introduced reforms, socialists would be happier with the improvement of their lives instead of wanting socialism in the UK.
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Who were two key social reformers?
1) Seebohm Rowntree. 2) Charles Booth.
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Describe the background of Charles Booth.
He was an English social investigator and pioneer in developing the social survey method, who made an exhaustive study of poverty in London.
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What was Charles Booths book about poverty in London called? When was it released?
The book was called "Life and Labour of the People in London" released in 1892.
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Describe the background of Seebohm Rowntree.
He was from York. He recieved a lot of money from his chocolate business and decided he had a duty to assist the poor, he was a Liberal.
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Describe Booth's investigation.
His researchers visited every street in London at least twice interviewing over 1 million people (1891-1903).
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Describe Rowntrees investigation.
His investigation backed up what Booth's had found (except he did his investigation in York for two years).
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Describe Booths' findings.
30% of London was living in abject poverty. 35% were living below his "poverty line" (minimum income of 90p-£1.05 a week for a family with 3 children). Only 3% of 35% were getting poor law help.
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Describe Rowntrees findings.
30% were living in poverty (not enough money for clothes and food). He proved poverty was not only in London.
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What was Rowntrees book about poverty called? When was it released?
In 1901 he published his findings ini "Poverty, a Study of Town Life".
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Overall, what did both Rowntree and Booth discover about the factors that caused poverty.
They both found that the factors were mainly outside the control of the individual, and could not therefore be tackled by self-help.
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What did Rowntree and Booth discover the main causes were NOT?
NOT laziness, drunkenness and gambling (contrary to common belief)
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What did Rowntree and Booth discover the main causes WERE?
WERE casual labour, low pay, unemployment, ill health, old age and large families.
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What were the two types of poverty?
Primary and Secondary poverty.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name two key individuals that influenced the reforms.

Back

1) David Lloyd George. 2) Winston Churchill.

Card 3

Front

Describe the background of David Lloyd George.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how Winston Churchill became a key individual in the Liberal Reforms.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What made Churchill and Lloyd George believe Welfare Reforms were right.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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