Key Words for Liberal Reforms
Laissez-Faire- The Governments attitude toward poor people until the 1890s. "Poverty is your own fault. The Government doesn't have to do anything about it."
Philanthropist- Someone who donates money, goods, services, time and effort to support a socially beneficial cause.
State Intervention- Government prepared for responsibility.
How were the social reformers reacting to the soci
Before 1890, attitudes had begun to change a little:
- Help the Sick--Hospitals offered free treatment. --National hospital system.
- Help the Unemployed--Provided work.
- Help the Old--Allowed visitors in the workhouse. --Given luxuries eg tea & tobacco.
- Help the Young--Educated in the workhouse.
Why did the Liberals introduce Welfare reforms?
- 1900- Government helped widespread unemployment.
- Winston Churchill supported Liberals.
- They stated that it was the role of the Government to support the poor when needed.
- Rowntree had influence on the Government and had written a book about poverty.
- The reforms would determine support for the New Labour party.
- Welfare reforms way to fight Socialism.
- In the Boer War people had ill health. The Government started to rethink!
- They changed their point of view through evidence and statistics.
- Hoped to keep rival parties' seat low.
- Gain more votes, as it was working in Germany.
- Recommendations influenced the Liberal programme of reform.
- Influenced by researchers and social reformers like Rowntree.
- They realised it was not always the fault of the poor that they were poor.
- The Conservative Party made a small step to win votes.
Charles Booth and seebohm Rowntree
- English Social investigator.
- Booth published a series of book volumes about Poverty.
- Identified the main causes of Poverty.
- A Socialogist and philanthropist.
- Published a book about Poverty.
- Reviewed the poor Law.
Why did the Government (Liberal) introduce reforms
1906- General Election
- The Liberals took power from the Conservatives.
- Prime Minister was Asquith. --Lloyd George was Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- Introduced a programme of Social reform.
Labour Party- Socialism and protecting the Vulnerable.
Germany/USA- Own Social reform programme
Social Reform=Higher taxes=unhappy rich people
In 1909, Lloyd George introduces a budget--The peoples budget
High taxes-- to pay for social reforms (old age pension)
How effective were the Liberal Social reforms?
Did they Work?
- Made a difference to a certain extent....addressed four key issues-Children, The Old, The Unemployed and The Sick.
- within these issues points were thought about and changed slightly....
- For Example-- children were allowed free school meals, but not all authorities used it. However, with the limitations they faced, they made a difference.
What were the positives?
- One big positive was the Governments response to Laissez-Faire.
- The Government agreed that sometimes it wasn't the Poor's fault that they were poor.
- Free school meals, medical care, pensions, sick pay and Labour exchange were now part of the reforms.
What were the problems?
- Local authorities had the choice to give free medical care and meals
- Only workers could get limited sick pay, but not their families.
- You could only receive pensions if you weren't a widow, British and were over 70 years old.
Reforms and Children
Before: No real system- some charities helped poor families with children; orphans looked after in workhouses.
Measures taken: -provided free school meals, school medical care and regular medical checks, special courts for child crime, compulsory medical inspection.
Limitations: Illegal to insure a child's life, less than half of local authorities provided meals, Detected great deals of medical problems, not compulsory to treat the health problems found.
Reforms and The Old
Before: Charities, family, the workhouse.
Measures taken: Old age pension of 5 shillings a week, Sate pension independent for the rest of their lives
Limitations: Pension could be refused, Widows not allowed pensions, Only British Citizens allowed pensions, hardly generous, lots of people didn't qualify, Resident for 20 years (Britain), most people didn't survive after 70.
Reforms and The Sick
Before: Charities, family, the workhouse.
Measures taken: Receive 10 shillings a week, receive 26 weeks of sick pay (worker), Free (insured) medical care, Boast for low-paid workers.
Limitations: Families of works not allowed free treatment, didn't solve their problems, needed to be insured, paid 4 d a week, Compulsory, enough to survive.
Reforms and The unemployed/ underemployed
Before: Outdoor relief, voluntary Labour exchange.
Measures taken: Register for available work, 3000 people per day got jobs, 7 shillings a week (out of work).
Limitations: Benefit limited to 15 weeks, compulsory in cyclical trades, enough to survive, prosecuted for paying less the minimum wage.