What's in a medicine - Basic principles+ knowledge

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  • Created by: steph
  • Created on: 20-12-13 19:24
What group do carboxylic acids contain?
A carboxyl acid group
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What is a carboxyl acid group?
-COOH
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What do carboxylic acid names end with?
–oic acid.
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What is the suffix used when 2 carboxyl groups are present?
-dioic acid
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List the carboxylic acid derivatives
Esters, Acyl chlorides, Amides + Acid anhydrides
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List the three organic molecules which can contain an OH group
Alcohols, Acids, + Phenols
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Definition of a primary alcohol
The OH group is attached to a carbon atom which is attached to one other carbon atom
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Definition of a secondary alcohol
The OH group is attached to a carbon atom which is bonded to two other carbon atoms
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Definition of a tertiary alcohol
The OH group is attached to a carbon atom which is bonded to three other carbon atoms
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Definition of a phenol
The OH group is directly bonded to a benzene ring
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List the running order of acid strength between ethanol, carboxylic acids, phenol + water
Ethanol < Water < Phenol < Carboxylic Acids
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What is the strength of the acid dependent upon?
The stability of the R-O- formed
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What happens if the –ve charge on the oxygen can be shared with other atoms?
It will be more stable
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Why is the R-O- of alcohols formed not very stable?
No sharing of the negative charge (the electrons) can occur in alcohols
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Why is the R-O- of phenols and carboxylic acids more stable than alcohols and water?
Sharing can occur as the electrons spread out around the whole ion (delocalised electrons)
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What is the product formed when carboxylic acids react with carbonates
Carbon dioxide
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What is formed when carboxylic acids and phenols react with NaOH(aq)
Their sodium salts
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Do alcohols react with either NaOH(aq) or any of the carbonates?
No
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What are the different forms of oxidation?
The loss of electrons, the loss of hydrogen or the gain of oxygen
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What is formed when primary alcohols are oxidised?
Aldehydes
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What is formed when aldehydes are further oxidised?
Carboxylic acids
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What is formed when secondary alcohols are oxidised?
Ketones
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Can tertiary alcohols be oxidised?
No
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Can phenols and carboxylic acids be oxidised?
No
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What oxidising agent is used to oxidise alcohols?
Acidified potassium dichromate (vi)
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What colour does the orange dichromate ion change to?
Green Cr3+
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What group do aldehydes and ketones both contain?
A carbonyl group
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What is the suffix used when naming aldehydes?
-al
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What is the suffix used when naming ketones?
-one
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What is required for reduction of aldehydes (to primary alcohols) + ketones (to secondary alcohols)?
Sodium tetrahydridoboarate (III) (NaBH4)
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Explain what dehydration of alcohols means
The alcohol loses a molecule of water to become a alkene
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What conditions are required for the dehydration of alcohols?
Hot catalyst of alumina at 300C
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What type of reaction is dehydration of alcohol an example of?
An elimination reaction
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List the two catalysts which can be used in the dehydration of alcohols
Either pass vapour over a hot catalyst of alumina (300C) or heat with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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What type of reaction is the reverse of dehydration of alcohol an example of?
An addition reaction
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What is the test for a carboxylic acid?
React with carbonate and if a carboxylic acid is present bubbles can be observed indicating carbon dioxide is being released
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What is the test for phenol?
Add iron (III) chloride solution and observe whether a purple complex forms, if there is a colour change to purple then a phenol group is present
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What are esters functional group isomers of?
Carboxylic acids
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What is formed when when a molecule of an organic acid reacts with an alcohol?
An ester
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What is this reaction an example of?
A condensation reaction
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What catalyst is used for this reaction?
Concentrated sulfuric acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid
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How are aldehydes formed to prevent them from being further oxidised to a carboxylic acid?
The oxidising solution is dripped slowly into the hot alchohol and the aldehyde is distilled off as it is formed
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How can you distinguish between aldehydes and ketones?
React with Fehling's solution (aldehydes are easily oxidises due to the H atom attached to the carbonyl group) or heat the alcohol under reflux with an excess of acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
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If an aldehyde is present what colour will be observed?
The blue copper (II) ions will be reduced to copper (I) oxide, a orange brown solid when the mixture is heated
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What is formed when an acid + an alkali react together?
Salt + Water
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What is formed when an acid + a carbonate react together?
Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide
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What acylating agents can be reacted with phenols to form an ester?
Acyl chloride or acid anhydride
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What conditions is required for acyl chloride?
Reaction takes place at room temperature
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What conditions is required for acid anhydride?
Heat under reflux
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Definition of a nucleophile
A molecule that is attracted to a positive charge
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What acid catalyst + conditions are required for ester hydrolysis?
Dilute sulphuric acid - heat under reflux
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What is produced when an acid catalyst is used?
A carboxylic acid
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What alkaline catalyst + conditions are required for ester hydrolysis?
Dilute sodium hydroxide - heat under reflux
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What is produced when an alkali is used?
A carboxylate salt
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Why is alkaline hydrolysis usually preferred to acid hydrolysis?
Alkaline hydrolysis goes to completion (unlike acid hydrolysis)
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Definition of a acid
A proton donor
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Defintion of a base
A proton acceptor
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What does every acid have?
A conjugate base
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What is a substance called if it can behave as both an acid or a base
Amphoteric
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What is ethanoylation?
When ethanoic acid is involved in esterification
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What is a more vigorous enthanoylating agent than ethanoic acid?
Ethanoic anhydride
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What is even more reactive than ethanoic anhydride?
Ethanoyl chloride
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Why is ethanoyl chloride not used?
It is toxic and hazardous to use because it is so reactive
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In ester formation what is eliminated from the alcohol to form water?
A hydrogen atom
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In ester formation what is eliminated from the carboxylic acid to form water?
OH molecule
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List the order of atom economy of additional, elimination, rearrangement + substitution
Rearrangement/addition > Substitution > Elimination
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What are the three most important questions asked about a drug during clinical trials?
1) Is it safe? 2) Does it work? 3) Is it better than anything currently available?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a carboxyl acid group?

Back

-COOH

Card 3

Front

What do carboxylic acid names end with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the suffix used when 2 carboxyl groups are present?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List the carboxylic acid derivatives

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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