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A study of condensation polymers and other modern materials. Main ideas :

condensation polymers;

amines and amides;

factors affecting the properties of polymers;

disposal of polymers.

How Science Works


  • using scientific knowledge and methodology to modify the properties polymers;

  • consideration of the benefits and risks associated with the manufacture and disposal of polymers and the decisions facing society.

Assumed knowledge

polymers (PR);

amines and amides (EP).

Learning Outcomes:

Bonding and structure

(a) explain the term electronegativity; recall qualitatively the electronegativity trends in the Periodic Table; use relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in a

covalent bond; decide whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar from its shape and the polarity of its bonds; explain, give examples of and recognise in given examples the

following types of intermolecular bonds: instantaneous dipole–induced dipole bonds (including dependence on branching and chain length of organic molecules), ermanent dipole–permanent dipole bonds, hydrogen bonds (synoptic);

(b) explain and predict the effect of temperature, crystallinity and chain length on the properties of polymers:

temperature – intermolecular bonds have more effect as the temperature is lowered; a polymer softens above its Tm and becomes brittle below its Tg;

crystallinity (regular packing of the chains, due to the regular structure of


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