What is Pathophysiology

  • Created by: Beckyrose
  • Created on: 17-03-14 10:20
What is Pathophysiology?
Study of structural and functional changes in cells tissues and organs in response to disease state
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What is etiology?
whats causing the disease?
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What is parthenogenesis?
Following the disease process
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What is the morphology of disease?
The visual changes seen in a disease state
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What are the 3 causes of disease
1. Infective, 2. Genetic, 3. Environmental
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What are Clinical Manifestations?
The Signs and Symptoms, often not diagnostic
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Why does a disease develop
Develops when cells fail to adapt stress and become injured and die
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What happens when cells are injured normally?
They will be engulfed by macrophages, the most common of which are neutrophils
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What are some factors that contribute to cell injury and death?
Ionizing and non ionzing radiation, ultraviolet, mechanical forces, heat & cold, viruses, chems, nutritional imbalances
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What are some examples of Ionizing radiation?
X-rays, mammograms,
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What are some examples of non ionizing radiation?
Microwaves, UV, radiowaves
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What are the 3 major mechanisms of Injury?
1. Free Radical Injury, 2. Hypoxic Cell Injury, 3. Impaired Calcium Homeostasis
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What are Free Radicals?
Molecules that have the ability to react with other molecules and actively react and alter proteins. Normally produced by body but too many upset important biomolecules like protein
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What is Free Radical Injury?
Accumulation of reactive molecules that upset important biomolecules such as proteins. They can damage molecules in membranes and genetic material
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What is Hypoxic Cell Injury?
A decrease in O2 from atmospheric, blood flow or resp problems means a decrease in ATP. Ned ATP to keep soduium/potassium pump going, w.o sodium enters cells, water follows = cells burst and die
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What is impaired Calcium Homeostasis?
Calcium levels dropping, calcium leaks into the cell, too much may lead to breakdown in the structure of the cell
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How may Cell Death Occur?
2 Paths: 1. Programmed Cell death (Apoptosis) not disruptive, no inflammatory response. 2. Necrosis: dead cells in tissues spill open, release content = inflammatory response
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What are the 2 Paths of Cell Death?
1. Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis) normal. 2. Necrosis
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What are the patterns of Necrosis?
1. Liquefaction Necrosis: 2. Coagulative Necrosis. 3. Caseous Necrosis
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What is Liquefaction Necrosis?
Enzymatic digestion, ***** collection of dead macrophages and cells
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What is Coagulative Necrosis?
Proteins are denatured and so not digested, cell goes into dead suspended state - tissues intact but dead
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What is Caseous Necrosis?
Has infective component with bacteria causing damage to the tissues
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What is Atrophy?
decrease in cell size e.g as you age your brain gets lighter as the tissues shrink
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What is Hypertrophy?
An increase cell size
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What is Hyperplasia?
An increase in cell number e.g exercise and increase of muscle mass
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What is Aplasia?
A decrease in cell number
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What is Metaplasia?
A reversible change where one cell is replaced by a different cell. E.g a smokers ciliated columnar epithelium being replaced by stratified squamous epithelium to protect it from cig smoke
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What is Dysplasia?
Abnormal cells with all different shapes, sign of cancer, not as easily reversible
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What is Neoplasia?
Uncontrollable growth that doesnt respond to normal controls.
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What is the difference between Hyperplastic cells and Neoplastic cells?
Hyperplastic cells (that increase cell number) are all the same cells and they x overgrow into surrounding tissues, Neoplastic cells are all types & shapes and x look like their parents
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What is Cancer?
A malignant neoplasm
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What is a Benign Neoplasm?
Well behaved, localized tumors surrounded by a fibrous capsule so can easily be taken out. They are well differentiated so the cells look like their parent cells
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What is a Malignant Neoplasm?
Poorly differentiated, non capsulated, can spread and metastasis
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What is Metastasis?
The spread of neoplastic cells via lymph or blood all over body
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What is poor differentiation?
The cells look so different from their parent cells you cant tell where they originated from
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What happens if the body's normal Proto-oncogenes are mutated?
They may turn into Oncogenes which turn a normal functioning cell into a neoplastic cell
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Card 2


What is etiology?


whats causing the disease?

Card 3


What is parthenogenesis?


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Card 4


What is the morphology of disease?


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Card 5


What are the 3 causes of disease


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