- Created by: BeckiSweet95
- Created on: 28-11-19 15:23
What is Sepsis?
- A whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
- Usually caused by bacteria in the blood.
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What is the Pathophysiology of Sepsis?
- Bacteria enter the bloodstream through damaged tissues.
- Cellular change in neutrophils making them live longer.
- Mast cells detect antigens and trigger an immune response. Secrete factors that mediate vasodilation and vascular constriction.
- Invading pathogen stimulates release of cytokines by macrophages. Cytokines stimulate movement of cells towards the site of infection.
- Blood vessels become leaky allowing white blood cells to enter the tissues.
- Blood vessels dilate due to inflammatory response. Capillaries leak blood and fluid. Risk of low blood pressure.
- Platelets release blood-clotting proteins at the wound site. Can't keep up with the breakage of blood vessels, causing blood to spill into the tissues.
- Causes fluid build up in tissues. Excess fluid makes it harder for oxygen to get through.
- Inadequate tissue perfusion leads to cellular hypoxia and lactic acidosis.
- Fluid leaving blood vessels causes decreased circulation volume, decreasing blood pressure
- Temperature increases in response to infection. Pyrogens influence hypothalamus to increase metabolic reactions.
- Due to blood clotting, blood is unable to get to organs, causing them to stop functioning due to lack of oxygen.
- Neutrophils and macrophages remove pathogens through phagocytosis.
- Blood vessels are damaged so oxygen is not absorbed properly, causing acute respiratory distress.
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What are the Symptoms of Sepsis?
- Tachycardia - Heart rate increases in response to reduced circulation volume, fever and chemical inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine).
- Tachypnoea - Respiratory rate increases to compensate for metabolic acidosis. The brainstem is stimulated to cause lungs to expel CO2.
- Fever - Body temperature raises in response to the presence of infection. Pyrogens influence the hypothalamus to increase metabolic reactions.
- Cyanosis - Caused by reduced blood flow to the pulmonary system, reducing adequate gaseous exchange.
- Mottled Skin/Cool Peripheries - Caused by reduced blood flow to the skin and peripheries. Secondary to hypotension and abnormal regulation of blood flow.
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What are the Treatments for Sepsis?
- IV Fluids - to restore circulation volume.
- IV Antibiotics - to eradicate the infection.
- Oxygen - to reduce work of breathing and improve oxygen saturations.
- Antipyretics - reduce fever.
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