- Created by: BeckiSweet95
- Created on: 28-11-19 17:12
What is Pertussis?
- Infection of the trachea caused by Bordatella Pertussis virus.
- Mainly affects infants and young children.
- Spread through exposure to affected people and through air droplets.
- Characterized by paroxysms of coughing that end with the 'whoop' sound.
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What is the Pathophysiology of Pertussis?
- Pertussis virus makes proteins which interrupt immune response.
- Proteins anchor onto ciliated cells in the airway and kill them.
- Mucus can't be moved out of the airway due to no cilia, so mucus builds up triggering a cough reflex.
- The blood vessels near the area of infection become leaky to allow lymphocytes to arrive at the tissues.
- Macrophages engulf the virus, but cannot destroy it due to toxins stopping the action.
- Pertussis Toxin (PT) and Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) invade cells and disrupt their normal function. Due to this, cells aren't activated (e.g. dendritic cells, t helper cells, IgE cells and mast cells).
- PT and ACT cause extra holes in the blood vessels, causing fluid to leak out. This causes the vessel to swell.
- This causes air resistance which causes the 'whoop' sound with the cough.
- Lymphocytes in the blood vessel multiply due to PT. This is called lymphocytosis.
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What is the Catarrhal Stage (Pertussis)
- Lasts 1-2 weeks.
- Infection highly contagious
- Infection in upper respiratory tract
- Symptoms: runny nose, low-grade fever, mild cough
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What is the Paroxysmal Stage? (Pertussis)
- Lasts 1-6 weeks.
- Can last up to 10 weeks.
- Worst stage of the infection.
- Infection causes mucus to build up in the airways.
- Symptoms: coughing fits followed by whoop sound, vomiting and exhaustion after coughing fits (paroxysms)
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What is the Convalescent Stage? (Pertussis)
- Lasts 2-3 weeks
- Children more susceptible to other respiratory infections.
- Recovery gradual
- Coughing fits lessen.
- Damage to respiratory tract begins to heal.
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What are the Treatments for Pertussis?
- Can be prevented with pertussis vaccine.
- Usually part of the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine.
- Given to children at 2, 4, 5 and 15-18 months old.
- Booster at 2-6 years old.
- Some cases still occur (particularly in infants under 6 months)
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