Urban Issues & Challenges Key Words

Urban Issues & Challenges
Key Word Definitions
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Brownfield site
Building on sites which already have old factories/industrial buildings on.
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An area which once was used for human activity but has now fallen into a state of disrepair and is no longer used.
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Economic opportunities
A chance to improve financial conditions.
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Formal economy
A worker has a formal contract, fixed duration of work time etc.
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Greenfield site
Undeveloped land in a city or rural area either used for agriculture, landscape design, or left to evolve naturally.
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Differences in size, degree, circumstances etc; lack of equality.
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Informal economy
The part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government.
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Integrated transport systems
Whatever types of transport are involved, they all operate on 'seamless' entity - for the benefit of the fare paying customer.
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Low income country (LIC)
Defined in 1985 as countries with a per capita incomes below $400.
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High income country (HIC)
Defined in 1985 as countries with a per capita income about US$12,415.
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A city with a population of 10 million people or more.
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Movement of people to a new area or country in order to find work or better living conditions.
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Natural increase
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
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Newly emerging economies (NEEs)
Newly industrialised countries as of 2013.
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The presence in or introducing into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.
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Rural urban fringe
The landscape interface between town and country.
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Conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal.
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Social deprivation
The reduction or prevention of culturally normal interaction between an individual and the rest of society.
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Social opportunities
People have different opportunities based on their social networks.
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Squatter settlement
A building where the people have no legal rights to the land they are built upon. The people are living there illegally.
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Traffic congestion
A condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, slower speeds, longer trip times etc.
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Urban greening
Creation and maintenance of green spaces.
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The process by which an increasing percentage of a countries population comes to live in towns and cities.
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When an area in a state dereliction is revitalised and reused for a new economic/social activity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Brownfield site


Building on sites which already have old factories/industrial buildings on.

Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Economic opportunities


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Formal economy


Preview of the front of card 5
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