Unit 2 Definitions

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Biodiversity
A measure of the number of species on the planet
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Extinction
The loss of species
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Evolution
The process by which new species are formed from pre-existing ones over very long periods of time
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Adaptive Radiation
The emergence of a new species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment
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Taxonomy
The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life
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Hierarchical
A classification system based on ranking groups in ascending order from large groups to small groups
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Taxom
A level in the classification hierarchy consisting of a collection of organisms sharing some basic features
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Species
A group of similar organisms sharing some basic features
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Phylogeny
The evolutionary relationship between organisms
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Exoskeleton
A hard encasement on the exterior of an Arthropod that provides waterproofing, protection and points of attachment for muscles
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Chordata
The scientific name for vertebrates
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Homologous
Having a common origin but serve a different function
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Pentadactyl
Having five digits
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Analogous
Having the same function but a different origin
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Convergent Evolution
The tendency of unrelated organisms to acquire similar structures
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Respiratory Surface
The site of gaseous exchange
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Metabolic Rate
The rate at which energy is used up in the body
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Metabolism
The total chemical processes in the body
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Operculum
Gill cover
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Inspiration
Breathing in
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Expiration
Breathing out
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Terrestrial Organism
An organism that lives on land
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Stoma (Plural Stomata)
Pores located on the lower surface of a leaf, through which gases diffuse
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Cuticle
Waxy covering on a leaf which reduces water loss
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ATP
A compound important in the transfer of energy
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Myogenic
The heartbeat is initiated from within the muscle itself and is not due to nervous stimulation
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Systole
Stage in which the heart muscle contracts
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Diastole
Stage in which the heart muscle relaxes
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Affinity
One molecule having a chemical attraction for another
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Partial Pressure (Of Oxygen (pO2))
Normal atmospheric pressure is 100kPa. As oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere, its maximum partial pressure is 21kPa
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Bohr Effect
At higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide, the more the curve shifts to the right
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Tissue Fluid
Plasma minus plasma proteins
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Transpiration
The evaporation of water from inside the leaves, through the stomata to the atmosphere
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Endodermis
A ring of cells surrounding the xylem tissue having an impermeable waterproof barrier through their cell walls
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Root Pressure
A force created at the base of the xylem vessel by the influx of water along a water potential gradient
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Cohesion
Water molecules tend to stick together
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Adhesion
The water molecules stick to the walls of the xylem
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Capillarity
The tendency for water to rise in narrow tubes
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Clone
A group of genetically identical offspring produced by asexual means
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Diploid
The full chromosome number of body cells
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Haploid
Half the chromosome number found in gametes
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Fertilisation
The fusion of male and female gametes with the formation of a fertilised egg or zygote
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Zygote
Fertilised egg
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Larva (Nymph)
The young or immature form of an adult insect
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Metamorphosis
A period of change from the larval stage to the adult
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Peristalsis
Waves of muscular contraction
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Ruminant
Herbivore with a stomach or rumen modified into four chambers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The loss of species

Back

Extinction

Card 3

Front

The process by which new species are formed from pre-existing ones over very long periods of time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The emergence of a new species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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