Tsarist Reforms

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Outline Alexander II's reign in terms of repressive methods of controlling opposition
1855: Third Section used as the main instrument of political repression, Glasnost (openness) characterised his attitude, reforms intended to appease opposition, but actually exacerbate it
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Outline Alexander III's reign in terms of government reforms
1881: Reversal of Alexander II's reforms begins 1881: Russification policy begins 1883: Peasant's Land Bank created 1889: Land Captains introduced 1893: Peasant's Land Bank extended
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Outline Alexander II's reign in terms of government reforms
1859: Restrictions on foreign travel lifted 1861: Great Emancipation Act 1860: Miltary, legal and education reforms begun 1864: Creation of Zemstva
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Outline Nicholas II's reign in terms of government reforms
October Manifesto issued in 1905, promised to establish a Duma 1906: Various reforms led by Stolypin 1906: Fundamental Laws reassert autocracy
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Outline Alexander III's reign in terms of repressive methods of controlling opposition
1881: Okhrana formed with more extensive powers than 3rd Section 1881: 150 members of the 'People's Will' group arrested 1887:Alexander Ulyanov (Lenin's brother) executed for planning to assassinate the Tsar
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Outline Nicholas II's reign in terms of repressive methods of controlling opposition
1905: Bloody Sunday massacre in 1905 revolution 1905-1917: Tsar gradually erodes power of the Duma, dissolving them in 1906, 1907 and 1917. Stolypin makes extensive use of the Okhrana
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Outline Lenin's reign in terms of repressive methods of controlling opposition
1917: Cheka formed led by Felix Dzerzhinsky 1918: Cheka kill 50,000 1918-1921: Red Terror enables the Bolsheviks to win the Civil War
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Outline Alexander III's reign in terms of government reforms

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1881: Reversal of Alexander II's reforms begins 1881: Russification policy begins 1883: Peasant's Land Bank created 1889: Land Captains introduced 1893: Peasant's Land Bank extended

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Outline Alexander II's reign in terms of government reforms

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Outline Nicholas II's reign in terms of government reforms

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Outline Alexander III's reign in terms of repressive methods of controlling opposition

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