Autocracy, dictatorship and totalitarianism

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  • Autocracy, dictatorship & totalitarianism
    • Aims of Tsarists, Communists
      • Tsar keep as much political power as possible, only gave up power to prevent revolution if felt it was necessary
      • Lenin aimed to improve working conditions of workers, needed to challenge superstructure  - Marx
      • Stalin -  new 'superstruct' could change base of society, had to be 1 person to stop infighting
      • Khrushchev wanted to rid cults of personality. Party of secretary of state - used  influence over others
    • Similarities & differences in Tsarist & Communist leadership
      • Similarities
        • Belief in need for absolute control
          • Autocracy - power to Tsar 'Superstruct' command economy (5 year plans & collectivisation) under 1 - Stalin
        • Personalised power
        • Use of repression to maintain control
        • Use of refom to maintain control
        • Reluctance to allow openness and proliferation of freedoms
      • Differences
        • Justifications for rule, Tsars (God) Communists nature of proleteriat, marxism
        • Views of human nature, role reversal, workers praised more under comms
        • Reform views. Tsars not welcome as challenges Government, Communist thought it maintained borgeois system
        • Representative Govt, Same reason as reform views
    • Nature of Rule 1855 - 1964
      • Autocracy 1855-1917. 1 person with total power,  ordained from God?
        • Total submission, paternalistic duty (moral judge on behalf of God, support of Church) Necessity for decisions, vast Empire

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