Tsarist and Communist Russia 6B- Social Developments

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As industialisation spread, what did Russia's traditional land based move towards?
One more focussed upon money, capital and wages.
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Was this a slow or fast process?
Slow, as until 1895, society was strongly divided.
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But what did this period see an emergence of?
a new middle class and urban working class.
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Where were the placed between?
The landowning elites and the mass of peasants.
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Were the landowning elite small or large?
They were a small but diverse group, mostly of noble status.
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After Emancipation, what happened to their personal landownings?
It had considerably declined, as some sold out to pay off debts and others abandoned farming in favour of more rewarding professional activities.
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How much money that nobles made from land sales went to paying off mortgages from the Nobles Land Bank?
one eighth.
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in 1880, how many of university professors came from the nobility?
Nearly one fifth.
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Other saw a future in business. By 1882, how many noblles owned their own business in Moscow?
More than 700 nobles.
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How mnay nobles were employed in trasnport, industry and commerce?
nearly 2500..
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What were the consequences of all this?
Even though there were changes to their position, msot former serf-owners retained much of their previous wealth and status.
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Why did Russia's middle class begin to grow?
Urban and industrial expansion and increase in educational opportunities.
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What types of profession were in greater demand?
Bankers, doctors, teachers and administraters.
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But what did their numbers add up to in 1897?
Only half a million.
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What provided opportunities for the middle class?
Government contracts to build railways, and state loans to set up factories.
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What was the expanion of industry accompanied by?
A growth in the urban population.
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But, how much of the population did the number of urban workers make up?
No more than 2%.
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What was in relatively common for peasants do?
To move to the towns to work temporarily, then returning to their villages to help at peak times e.g. harvest.
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But why did some peasants leave the countryside?
To etiher join a migrant group building railways or to become urban workers.
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By 1864, how many inhabitants of St. Petersburg were peasants by birth?
1 in 3.
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What were the conditions like in the cities?
Could be grim, the early factories paid little to their workers.
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in 1882-90, what were there from the government?
A series of reforms.
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What were the types of things included in these reforms?
Regulation of child labour, a reduction of working hours, a reduction of excessive fines and payment in kind, and the appointment of inspectors checking on living and working conditions.
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How did these contribute to the lives of the urban working class?
Nothing. It did very little towards improving the lives of the growing urban working class.
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Although peasants were attracted to the prospect of regular wages, what were payments really like?
They were rarely genorous.
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Although they were illegal, how many strikes were there between 1886 to 1994?
33 strikes per year.
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Why was the peasantry similar to the land elites?
It was divided.
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Who were at the top of the peasantry?
The kulaks, who bought up land, with the aid of loands from the Peasant Land Banks.
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Who did they employ?
Labour and sometimes acted as 'pawn brokers' to the less fortunate.
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How did they do this?
They bought their land in tha autumn to provide them with money to tide them over the winter, but selling it back at inflated prices in the spring.
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What would happen if their clients couldn't afford the repayments?
The kulaks sometimes accepted land instead.
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How did the poorer peasants find life?
Found it getting harsher as they turned into landless labourers, dependant on others.
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How many formers serfs in the Tambov region in the 1880's couldn't afford to feed themselves?
Two out of every three.
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How did livinig standards vary throughout the country?
Areas of former state peasants tended to do better than those emancipated priavately owned serfs. They were granted more land.
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Despite improvements to healthcare through the zemstva, what still were some of the peasanntry unnfit for/
Military service.
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What were mortality rates like?
Higher than those of any European country.
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What was the average life expectancy for males and females?
males-27 and 29 for female. England- 45 years.
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Card 2

Front

Was this a slow or fast process?

Back

Slow, as until 1895, society was strongly divided.

Card 3

Front

But what did this period see an emergence of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where were the placed between?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Were the landowning elite small or large?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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