Tsarist and Communist Russia 5- The growth of opposition to tsarist rule.

How did Alexander II's reforms bring about opposition?
The hope and disappointment that people felt.
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What did the relaxation of censorship encourage?
The spread of radical literature.
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What did the relaxation of controls in higher education increase?
The number of independantly minded students.
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What did the introduction of the zemstva and dumas allow?
Provided a platform for educated intellectuals to challenge tsarist policies.
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How did the more repressive atmosphere of Alexander II and Alexadner III cause opposition?
Reinforced the demands for change. This came from many angles.
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Why were the liberal intelligentsia so small?
They were very few literate and educated Russians.
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But how did they grow?
They grew with the reforms and economic changes of the 19th century.
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What did liberal intellectuals benefit from?
Education, but also wealth, time and interest to reflect on ppolitical matters.
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What did some of the intelligentsia sought the truth from?
Nihilism and Anarchism.
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What is nihilism?
the belief that all values are baseless, and that nothing can be known or communicated.
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What is anarchism?
the belief in self-governed institutions, the state is cosidred unnecessary or harmful.
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But which two categories did most intellectuals fall into?
Slavophiles and Westerners.
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What did the Westerners want?
Wanted to 'catch up with the West' by copying western ways. Russia should abandon Slavic traditions, included reforms for economy and military, but alos society
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What did the Slavophiles want?
Favoured a 'Russian' path to a better future. Russia should have a unique culture and heritage centred around the peasant society and Orthodox church.
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What did the zemstva provide for the westerners?
A home for liberal opposition voices, as local decision makers encouraged to think more nationally.
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What were the zemstva's members hopes?
To reform the autocracy, that the Tsar could listen to and rule in conjunction with his subjects.
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But even though Alexander II created the representative zemstva, what was his intention?
Was not going to give them national influence.
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What happened when the St.Petersburg zemstvo demanded a central body?
Alexander II stood firm against the proposal, and said no.
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What happened to the Slavophiles after 1881?
Peaked in 1881, attraction of the Slavophiles diminsished in 1890s, as the country moved towards industrialisation. Created conditions in whcih western-style socialism began to take reign.
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What did this do to the intelligentsia?
Split it, with some attracted by Marxist theory and socialism, others wanted a more liberal stance and wanted reform of tsardom.
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What did the 1891-92 famine do for the zemstva?
Left the zemstva largely responsible for elief work, as the tsarist governemtn was over-bureaucratic and failed to take action.
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What did this mean for views on the tsarist regime?
Both increased convictions that teh Tsarist autocracy needed to change and provided the confidence needed to demand this
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By the mid 1890's what were there calls for?
renewed zemstva-led calls for a national body to advise the government.
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Where did radical opposition develop?
Among the younger generation, who were often children of liberal parents, and wanted to go further than them.
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In June 1862, a series of fires in St Petersburg destroyed how many shops?
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Who was held responsible for these fires?
Young Russia, and an investigation went into this, but nothing came out of it.
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What was set up by students at Moscow University in 1863?
'The Organisation', more calls for reform were made.
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What was student idealism and determination increased by?
The repression of the later 1860s and the influence of radical socialist writers.
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Name a radical thinker. And what did he do?
Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Author of a radical journal 'The Contemporary' and the book, 'What is to be done?', written in 1862.
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Who was Mikhail Bakunin, and what did he believe in?
An anarchist and a socialist. Had the view that private ownership of land should be replaced by collective ownership. Income should be based on the number of hours worked.
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Even though he was forced to live in exile, what did he help to introduce to Russia?
Marxism, by translating Karl Marx's 'The Communist Manifesto' into Russian in 1869. First volume of 'Das Kapital' was publsihed in 1879.
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What was Marxist theory?
Based on the idea that all history was compromised of class struggles.
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What had Marx predicted?
The struggle between the working class 'proletariat' and the factory-owning capitalist 'bourgeoisie' would herald the perfect 'communist' society in which everyone would be equal.
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What did Bakunin and Nechaev write in 1869?
Wrote a manifesto 'Catechism of a revolutionary' which was published in Switzerland and smuggled in Russia.
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What did the book entail?
Opponants of the autocracy to be merciless in their pursuit for revolution, alying aside all other attachments.
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Who was the Tchaikovsky Circle named after?
It's most promiant member, Nikolai Tschaikovsky.
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When was it set up?
1868-69 in St.Petersburg.
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What was the Tchaikovsky Circle?
A literacy society that organsied the publishing, printing and distribution of scientific and revolutionary activity, inclduing Marx's 'Das Kapital'.
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How many people were involved in the Circle?
No more than 100 people, spread between St.Petersburg and other major cities.
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What did it soight after?
Social (not political) revolution.
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What did the circle begin to do after 1872?
Began organising workers with the intention of them going to work with the peasants in the countryside.
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What did the the idea of 'going to the people' become known as?
Narodnyism (Populism)
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In 1874, what did Pyotr Lavrov do?
Encouraged a group of 2000 young men and women to travel to the countryside.
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Why did they want to persuade the peasantry?
The future of Russia depended on the development of the peasant commune.
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What di they aim to exploit?
The resentment felt since Emancipation about the peasant's lack of land and the heavy tax burden they still carried.
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What did the Narodniks try to do to fit in?
Tried dressing and talking like peasants.
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But why didn't the Narodniks plan go well?
The peasants still had a deep-rooted loyality to the Tsar, so the newcomers were quickly reported to the authorities.
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How many were arrested?
Around 1600.
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Was the next attempt of going to the people more successful than the first?
No, more arrests followed and a series of show trials were held between 1877 and 78.
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Despite it's immediate failure, how did Narodnyism make radical opposition more open?
It took opposition away from the underground meeting rooms and into the countryside. Made the government more aware of the upset people felt.
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When was Land and Liberty set up?
1877, and they continued the populist tradition.
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In which posititions did the members did people sought work?
Doctors, teachers or workmen- but in a less obstructive manner.
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What did they carry out?
Political assassinations, including General Mezemtsev, head of the Third Section, in 1878.
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Who were there talks between?
The zemstva and the Land and Liberty to try and place more pressure on the autocracy for constituional reform.
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What did the tsarst governemtn do in response?
Nothing, it failed to respond to the group. Dmitry Milyutin saw the state of the country, but no one listened to the growing pressure for change.
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In 1879, Land and Liberty split into 2 groups, what are these?
Black Reparation and the People's Will.
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Who organsed the Black Reparation?
Georgi Plekhanov .
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Why was it named this?
Wanted to share or partition the black soil provinces of Russia among the peasantry.
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Did it use violence to get what it wants?
No, continued to work peacefully with the peasatry, developing ties with students and workers.
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But how was it severly weakened?
Arrests in 1880-1, when it ceased to exist as a separate organisation.
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What did Plekhanov turned to instead?
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Who was the People's Will led by?
Aleksandr Mikhailov.
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What was he successful in doing?
Planted a spy in the Tsar's Third Section, to keep the group informed of the Secret Police's activity.
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What did it advocate?
Violent methods, undermining the government by assassinating government officials
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What did they successfully achieve in 1881?
The assassination of the tsar.
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How did Alexander II's assassination mark a turning point?
Security was stepped up, and the new Tsar retired to a fortified castle.
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What did this effectively end?
The Populist movement, although some members till went around committing acts of terrorism.
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What happened to 'Self Education' circles e.g. the Muscovite Society of Translators and Publishers?
They went underground, and continued to publish and translate foreign socialist writings.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did the relaxation of censorship encourage?


The spread of radical literature.

Card 3


What did the relaxation of controls in higher education increase?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did the introduction of the zemstva and dumas allow?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How did the more repressive atmosphere of Alexander II and Alexadner III cause opposition?


Preview of the front of card 5
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