Topic 2 Childhood

  • Created by: Ali682
  • Created on: 11-04-18 19:14
Jane Pilcher (1995)
Jane Pilcher (1995) notes the most important feature of the modern idea of childhood is separateness.
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Stephen Wagg (1992)
Childhood is socially constructed. It is, in other words what members of particular societies, at particular times in particular places say it is. There is no single universal childhood experienced by all. So childhood isn't natural.
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What does Ruth Benedict (1934) argue?
She argues that children in simpler, non industrial societies are generally treated differently from their western counterparts in three ways..
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Samantha Punch's (2001) study
Her study of childhood in rural Bolivia found that, once children are about five years old, they are expected to take work responsibilities in the home and in the community.
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Lowell Holmes' (1974) study
His study of a Samoan village found that 'too young' was never given as a reason for not permitting a child to undertake a particular task.
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Raymond Firth (1970)
He found that among the Tikopia of the western pacific doing as you are told by a grown up is regarded as a concession to be granted by the child, not a right to be expected by the adult.
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Bronislaw Malinowski (1957)
Found that adults took an attitude of tolerance and amused interest towards children's sexual explorations and activities.
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What does Benedict argue?
He argues that in many non-industrial cultures, there is much less of a dividing line between the behaviour expected of children and that expected of adults.
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What does Philippe Aries (1960) argue?
He argues that in the Middle Ages the idea of childhood did not exist. Children were not seen as having a different nature or needs from adults.
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What does Edward Shorter (1975) argue?
He argues that high death rates encouraged indifference and neglect, especially towards infants.
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What does Linda Pollack (1983) argue?
She argues that it is more correct to say that in the Middle Ages, society simply had a different notion of childhood from today's.
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Jacques Donzelot (1977)
Observes how theories of child development that began to appear from the 19th century stressed that children need supervision and protection.
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What does Neil Postman (1994) argue?
Postman argues that childhood is disappearing at a dazzling speed. He points to the trend towards giving children the same rights as adults.
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Postman argues that childhood emerged as a separate status along with mass literacy, from the 19th century on.
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What does Iona Opie (1993) argue?
She argues that childhood is not disappearing. She argues that that there is strong evidence of the continued existence of a separate children's culture over many years.
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Christopher Jenks (2005)
Does not believe childhood is disappearing, but does believe it is changing.
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What does Jenks argue?
Jenks argues childhood is once again undergoing change as society moves from modernity to postmodernity.
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Lloyd De Mause (1974)
The history of childhood is nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken. The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of childcare, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorised.
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Who holds the march of progress view and what do they argue?
Writers such as Aries and Shorter hold a march of progress view. They argue that today's children are more valued, better cared for, protected and educated, enjoy better health and have more rights than those of previous generations.
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What do march of progress sociologists argue?
March of progress sociologists argue that the family has become child centred. Children are no longer to be seen and not heard as they were in Victorian times.
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Sue Palmer (2007:2010)
She argues that rapid technological and cultural changes in the past 25 years have damaged children's physical, emotional and intellectual development.
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Who holds the conflict view?
Marxists and Feminists
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What do conflict sociologists argue?
They argue that society is based on a conflict between different social groups such as social classes, or genders.
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What do conflict sociologists argue? (2)
Conflict sociologists argue that the march of progress view of modern childhood is based on a false and idealised image that ignores important inequalities.
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How do conflict sociologists criticise the march of progress view?
There are many inequalities among children in terms of the opportunities and risks they face. The inequalities between children and adults are greater than ever.
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Mayer Hillman (1993)
According to Mayer Hillman (1993) boys are more likely to be allowed to cross or cycle on roads, use buses and go out after dark unaccompanied.
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Jens Bonke (1999)
Found that girls do more domestic labour- especially in lone parent families, where they do five times more housework than boys.
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Julia Brannen's (1994) study
Her study of 15-16 year olds found that Asian parents were more likely than other parents to be strict towards their daughters.
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Ghazala Bhatti (1999)
Found that ideas of izzat (family honour) could be a restriction, particularly on the behaviour of girls.
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What do Shulamith Firestone (1979) and John Holt (1974) argue?
They argue that many of the things that march of progress writers see as care and protection are in fact just new forms of oppression and control.
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What does Firestone argue
Firestone argues that 'protection' from paid work is not a benefit to children but a form of inequality.
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Hugh Cunningham (2007)
According to Hugh Cunningham the 'home habitat' of 8 year olds has shrunk to one-ninth of the size it was 25 years earlier.
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Cindi Katz (2004)
Cindi Katz describes how rural Sundanese children roam freely both within the village and for several kilometres outside it.
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Diana Giitins (1998)
Diana Gittins (1998) uses the term 'age patriarchy' to describe inequalities between adults and children.
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What does Diana Gittins (1998) argue?
She argues that there is also an age patriarchy of adult domination and child dependency.
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Cathy Humphreys and Ravi Thiara (2002)
According to Cathy Humphreys and Ravi Thiara (2002) a quarter of the 200 women in their study left their abusing partners because they feared for their children's lives.
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Jennifer Hockey and Allison James (1993)
Describe one strategy as 'acting up' - acting like adults by doing things that children are not supposed to do such as swearing, smoking, drinking alcohol, joy riding and under age sexual activity.
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What do critics of the child liberationist view argue?
They argue that some adult control over children live's is justified on the grounds that children cannot make rational decisions and so are unable to safeguard their interests themselves.
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Carol Smart (2011)
Says the new approach aims to include the views and experiences of children themselves while they are living through childhood.
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Jennifer Mason and Becky Tipper (2008)
Show how children actively create their own definitions of who is 'family' - which may include people who are not 'proper' aunts or grandfathers, but who they regard as 'close'.
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Smart et al (2001) study
Her study of divorce found that, far from being passive victims, children were actively involved in trying to make the situation better for everyone.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Stephen Wagg (1992)


Childhood is socially constructed. It is, in other words what members of particular societies, at particular times in particular places say it is. There is no single universal childhood experienced by all. So childhood isn't natural.

Card 3


What does Ruth Benedict (1934) argue?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Samantha Punch's (2001) study


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Lowell Holmes' (1974) study


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