Thinking About Race

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What was the central conclusion of Hoschild and Sen?
That race is socially constructed
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What year was Hoschild and Sen's work published?
2013
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What does IRAC stand for?
Issue, rule, application, conclusion
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What does issue in IRAC mean?
Understanding what the question is asking you about
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What does rule mean in IRAC?
Identifying the theory or idea that needs to be discussed in the answer
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What does application mean in IRAC?
Identifying how to apply the issue to the question
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What is the conclusion of IRAC?
Drawing a conclusion from the other three steps and using it to write your answer
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What is factual knowledge?
Regurgitation of facts
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What is procedural knowledge?
Using knowledge to compare, contrast and draw your own conclusions
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What year was Kurzban et al's work published?
2001
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When was Leiberman's work published?
2005
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When was Schreiber and Iacoboni's work published?
2012
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When was Tishkoff and Kidd's work published?
2004
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What is race often attributed to by the general public?
Genetics
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When was Parra et al's work published?
2004
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When was Jorde and Wooding's work published?
2004
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Who wrote "Does Race Exist"?
Bamshad and Olson
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When was Bamshad and Olson's work published?
2003
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When was Tatum's work published?
1997
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What is the name of Tatum's book?
Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?
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What is Tatum's definition of racism?
A system of advantage based on race
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What analogical tool does Tatum use to present her definition of racism?
Travelator
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Who developed Symbolic Racism Theory?
Sears
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When was Sears' work published?
1997
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What do Tishkoff and Kidd (2004) attribute differences in skin pigmentation to?
Geography
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What do Tishkoff and Kidd (2004) mean by geography playing a role in skin pignmentation?
That over a long time, populations from geographic regions have been differentiating
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What is the Out of Africa theory?
The theory that all humankind began in Africa
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Whereabouts in Africa, according to the Out of Africa theory, did humans first originate?
Horn of Africa
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What has slavery led to amongst races?
Admixture
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What is genetic admixture?
When two distinct populations interbreed to form new genetic lines amongst populations
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What major theory does Tishkoff and Kidd's (2004) work support?
Out of Africa Theory
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What are the five questions you want to answer when reading an academic paper?
What is the central argument? What is the method? What results were gathered? What conclusions were drawn? What counter-arguments and limitations are there of their work?
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What is the easiest place to look for answers to the five academic paper questions
The title
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What year was Ballcells research published?
2015
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Where did Ballcells carry out her research?
Northern Ireland
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What specifically was Balcells researching in NI?
Low intensity inter-group conflict
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What method do Balcells use?
Data analysis from cross-sectional time-series violence data
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What is Balcells conclusion drawn from the data?
That violence peaks between groups where there is parity
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What does Balcells conclude regarding segregation?
That segregation is unlikely to reduce inter-group violence, but increase it
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Why, according to Balcells, does segregation not work?
Because it reduces the opportunity for there to be positive inter-group interactions and increases attachment to territory
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What are the 5 things to
Statistical significance, substantive significance, causal significance, r squared and generally what does it mean
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Where to find statistical significance
Stars
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Where to find substantive significance
Big or little number, positive or negative slope
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Where to find causal significance
Whether there may be causally significant (plausible causality)
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What is the R squared value
Look for the R squared bit, explains what percentage of what is being studied can be explained by the results
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Who developed Social Dominance Theory?
Sidanius
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What is Sniderman's methodology?
Survey experiment
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What is a survey experiment?
A part of the study is a survey, but half of the study participants had differing language of the questions
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What is Social Dominance Theory?
Attempts to be a holistic and general theory, self-esteem, rational actor, consistency, biopolitical and integrative
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What method should I use for writing the essay?
Seven steps
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What is the central question that Tatum wants to address?
Why are all the black kids sitting together
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What is Tatum's method?
Developmental psychology and the stages of black racial identity development
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What are Tatum's stages of development?
Pre-encounter, immersion, ????
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Why are all the black kids sitting together?
Because they are in the immersion stage of the cafeteria
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Why wouldn't we expect young black children to sit together?
They are in the pre-encounter stage
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What is not the definition of racism?
Prejudice plus power
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What type of liability does Tatum say in her definition of race?
Strict liability
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What does strict liability mean in racism?
When you know the danger that something can cause but you are careless anyway
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What are the two analogies for strict liabilities?
Explosive factories and tigers
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Who in the travelator is a passive racist?
Those stood on the travelator
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What is the affirmative defence according to Tatum?
Being actively anti-racist
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Why is there some conclusions of positive outcomes of segregation in NI?
Intra-group conflict is low in wards where there is little mixing of Catholic and Protestants
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What is low intra-ward conflict causing in NI?
High inter-group conflict
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What type of argument does Balcells present?
An argument by evidence
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What hypothesis does Balcells work relate to?
Contact hypothesis
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What hypothesis does Balcells' work counter?
The group threat hypothesis
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What are the key features of Sidanius?
Social dominance theory
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What question is Sidanius trying to answer?
Why do people of one group oppress another
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Where in Sidanius' work is biopolitics?
Human nature as a cause of conflict, preference for hierarchy
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What is a legitimizing myth?
A set of ideas and ideologies that serve to reinforce the hierarchy in SDO
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What does Phelps find?
Threat perception and implicit association tests in the amygdala when viewing white vs black faces
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What is Sears' core theory?
Symbolic racism theory
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What is symbolic racism theory?
It is not old fashioned racism (explicit), this has declined and there is now an acceptance of egalitarian values in replacement of old racism. The nature of racism is now obscured.
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Where do Sears and Sidanius clash?
Egalitarian norms vs attitudinal consistency models
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How can we measure symbolic racism?
On a symbolic racism scale
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What kind of significance is there in Sniderman's work?
Causal
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Who does Sears clash with?
Sniderman
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Who is getting less support according to Sniderman?
White European immigrants in comparison to black people
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What are key features of Dovidio?
How automatic and controlled processes impact attitudes towards race
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What is a way to register controlled processes towards race?
Surveys
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What is the alternative to registering controlled processes towards race?
IAT
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What is an IAT?
Implicit association test
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What type of attitudes did Dovidio want to test?
Implicit values
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Why would an IAT not be appropriate for a racism test?
Because it doesn't account for controlled attitudes
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What are implicit attitudes correlated with?
Implicit behaviours
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What are explicit attitudes correlated with?
Explicit behaviours
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What are the key features of Schelling?
We might want to be integrated but we end up always being segregated
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What is the name of Schelling's work?
Micromotives and macrobehaviour
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What is Kurzban's conclusion?
Race can be erased owing to underlying coalitional cognitions which can be changed
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What broader theory does Kurzban relate to?
Minimal group paradigms
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What is Phelps' method?
FMRI
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Whose work does Phelp's clash with?
Leiberman
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What was Lieberman's conclusions?
Racism is learned, African Americans show amygdala activity against their own groups, less but still significant
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What is Golby's conclusion?
People remember same-race faces better than other-race faces
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What is Schrieber and Iacoboni conclusion?
Internalised amygdala activation and implicit stereotypes. Race would not be a salient feature of threat perception. e.g. jesse jackson and not feeling fear of white man following him
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What does the prefrontal cortex relate to?
Controlled racial attitudes
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What is the medial prefrontal cortex related to?
The tendency to theorise about the feelings of others
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What are the key conclusions of Bamshad and Olson?
There is tremendous similarity among individuals, race is not genetics and biology, we can get genetic information from ancestry and geography, mitochondrial DNA
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Where is the mitochondrial DNA derived from?
Mother
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Where is there more variation in genetics?
Within populations than between populations
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Card 2

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What year was Hoschild and Sen's work published?

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2013

Card 3

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What does IRAC stand for?

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Card 4

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What does issue in IRAC mean?

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Card 5

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What does rule mean in IRAC?

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